Knee and leg dissection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Knee and leg dissection Deck (73):
1

What movement does the femur do when extended?

Medial rotation

2

Where does rectus femoris originate?

Anterior inferior iliac spine

3

Where does rectus femoris insert?

Quadriceps tendon

4

Where do the 3 vasti muscles originate?

Femur

5

Where do the 3 vasti muscles insert?

Quadriceps tendon

6

What is the function of the oblique fibres of vastus medialis?

Prevents lateral tracking of the patella during locomotion

7

In which tendon is the patella located?

Quadriceps

8

Where does the patella ligament insert?

Tibial tuberosity

9

Where is the infrapatellar fat pad located?

Directly below the patella ligament

10

Name the extracapsular ligaments of the knee

Medial and lateral collateral ligaments

11

Describe the shape of the lateral/fibular collateral ligament

Cord like

12

Where does the lateral/fibular collateral ligament extend?

From lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of the fibula

13

What covers the lateral/fibular collateral ligament?

Tendon of biceps femoris

14

Describe how the lateral/fibular collateral ligament is associated with the lateral meniscus

Not attached - there is a gap

15

What passes through the gap between the lateral meniscus and the lateral/collateral ligament?

Popliteus muscle

16

Give the origin of popliteus

Lateral condyle of the femur

17

Give the insertion of popliteus

Posterior tibia

18

Describe the structure of the tibial/medial collateral ligament

Broad ligament

19

Where does the tibial/medial collateral ligament extend?

From the medial condyle of the femur to the medial surface of the tibia

20

What is the tibial/medial collateral ligament attached to?

Blends with the capsule of the knee joint and is attached to the medial meniscus

21

Name the intracapsular ligaments

Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments

22

What is the anterior cruciate ligament attached to?

Anterior of the tibial plateau and passes to the inner aspect of the lateral condyle of the femur

23

What is the posterior cruciate ligament attached to?

Posterior of the tibial plateau and passes to the medial condyle of the femur

24

How do the menisci attach?

By their horns

25

What is the medial meniscus attached to?

Medial collateral ligament

26

Which meniscus is the most mobile?

Lateral meniscus

27

Which meniscus is more circular?

Lateral meniscus

28

List the tarsal bones

Calcaneus
Talus
Navicular
Medial cuneiform
Intermediate cuneiform
Lateral cuneiform
Cuboid

29

What is the ankle joint?

An articulation between the fibula, tibia and talus

30

What is the subtalar joint?

An articulation between the talus and calcaneus

31

Name the muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg

Tibialis anterior
Extensor hallucis longus
Extensor digitorum longus
Extensor retinaculum

32

Where do the muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg originate?

Tibia or fibula and interosseous membrane

33

Where does tibialis anterior insert?

Medial cuneiform bone and 1st metatarsal

34

Where does extensor hallucis longus insert?

Distal phalanx of the great toe

35

Where does extensor digitorum longus insert?

Middle and distal phalanx of d2-5

36

Where does the extensor retinaculum extend?

Between malleoli and from the medial malleolus to calcaneus and plantar fascia

37

Name the muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg

Fibularis longus
Fibularis brevis

38

Where do fibularis longus and brevis originate?

Fibular

39

Where does fibularis longus lie in relation to fibularis brevis?

Longus lies above brevis

40

Where does the tendon of fibularis longus extend?

Passes behind the lateral malleolus of the fibula and carries on obliquely across the sole of the foot to insert on the medial cuneiform bone and the 1st metatarsal

41

Where does the tendon of fibularis brevis insert?

Passes behind the lateral malleolus to insert on the 5th metatarsal bone

42

Where does the fibular retinaculum extend?

Between the lateral malleolus and the calcaneus

43

What is the common fibular (peronal) nerve a branch of?

Terminal branch of the sciatic nerve

44

What does the common fibular nerve divide into?

Superficial and deep fibular nerves

45

Where does the common fibular nerve divide?

Under proximal part of fibularis longus

46

What does the deep fibular nerve supply?

Muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg

47

Which artery is lateral to extensor hallucis longus tendon in the foot?

Dorsalis pedis artery

48

What does the superficial fibular nerve supply?

Lateral compartment of the leg

49

What groups can the muscles of the posterior leg be divided into?

Deep and superficial

50

List the muscles of the superficial group of the posterior compartment of the leg

Gastrocnemius
Soleus
Plantaris

51

How many heads does gastrocnemius have?

2

52

What do the heads of gastrocnemius form?

The inferior borders of the popliteal fossa

53

Give the origin of the 2 heads of gastrocnemius

Each of the condyles of the femur

54

What do the muscle bellies of gastrocnemius form?

Tendo calcaneus (Achilles tendon)

55

Where does tendo calcaneus insert?

Calcaneus

56

Give the origin of soleus

Fibula and tibia

57

Give the origin of plantaris

Femur

58

List the deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg

Popliteus
Flexor hallucis longus
Flexor digitorum longus
Tibialis posterior

59

Give the origin of flexor hallucis longus

Fibula

60

Where does flexor hallucis longus insert?

Distal phalanx of the great toe

61

Give the origin of flexor digitorum longus

Tibia

62

Where do the tendons of flexor digitorum longus insert?

Distal phalanx of toes 2-5

63

Give the origin of tibialis posterior muscle

Tibia and fibula

64

Where does tibialis posterior insert?

Navicular and medial cuneiform bone

65

What forms the roof of the tarsal tunnel?

Flexor retinaculum

66

Where does flexor retinaculum extend?

From medial malleolus to calcaneus

67

List the contents of the tarsal tunnel

Tibialis posterior
Flexor digitorum longus
Posterior tibial artery
Tibial nerve
Flexor hallucis longus

68

What does the tibial nerve supply?

Both the superficial and deep muscles of the leg

69

What does the tibial nerve divide into in the foot?

Medial and lateral plantar nerves

70

Name a branch of the tibial nerve

Sural nerve

71

Give the blood supply of the posterior compartment of the leg

Posterior tibial artery

72

Where is the great saphenous vein?

From medial side of the foot, ascends the medial border of the leg and thigh to pierce the femoral sheath via the saphenous opening draining into the femoral vein

73

Where is the short saphenous vein?

From lateral side of the foot, ascends to posterior side of leg and pierces the deep fascia to drain into the popliteal vein of the popliteal fossa