L 64 Viral Skin Disease 1 Rubeola/Rubella Flashcards Preview

Micro Exam 6 > L 64 Viral Skin Disease 1 Rubeola/Rubella > Flashcards

Flashcards in L 64 Viral Skin Disease 1 Rubeola/Rubella Deck (30):
1

Difference between rubeola and rubella

Rubeola= measles
Rubella= german measles

2

Measles reservoir

No known natural reservoir, thought to be a disease of civilization. Humans only.

3

Measles incubation period

10-14 days

4

How is measles spread?

Sets up shop in the respiratory epithelium, virus spread through respiratory droplets that remain in environment for considerable amount of time

5

Measles Prodromal stage

1-12 days post infection
Fever, Coryza, cough, conjunctivitis
Koplick's spots on buccal mucosa pathognomonic for measles

6

When does measles rash appear? What accompanies it?

3-4 days after exposure
Starts below ears, spreads to face and then down
High fever accompanies it

7

When is it best to get measles?

Better to get while young, like polio, because much of the unpleasant symptoms come from the reaction of the immune system so an immature immune system will not react so severely

8

Atypical measles

First vaccine produced antibodies that actually didn't completely inactivate the virus and instead sensitized the person to the virus so when they encountered the actual virus they got a sickness worse than if they had not received the vaccine.
Second vaccine fixed this problem.

9

Complications of measles

Measles would often lead to secondary complications
Pneumonia–most common and life threatening
Diarrhea–in children
Used to cause death in many cases and rarely encephalitis
SSPE: subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, fatal complication, child would get better, but virus would remain in the brain and grow slowly and eventually cause death, now extinct
Immune depression: can cause TB exacerbation

10

Why did lots of other diseases drop off after introduction of measles vaccine?

Stopping measles stopped a significant drop in immunity in kids and prevented them from getting lots of other diseases

11

Measles type of virus

Paramyxovirus
Enveloped
ssRNA

12

Measles trasmission

Respiratory droplets
HIGHLY contagious, surprisingly able to find those who are not vaccinated
Likes drier climates

13

What vitamin can reduce severity of measles infection?

Vitamin A helps

14

When is patient most contagious?

During prodrome until 4-5 days after rash erupts

15

Does vaccination to measles last a lifetime?

It is questionable, not entirely perfect

16

Measles diagnosis

Rash and Koplick's spots
IgM antibody capture ELISA
Swabs of mouth show multinucleated giant cells

17

Measles treatment

Treat the symptoms
No antiviral therapy

18

Measles control

MMR-II vaccine
Live attenuated
Given in 2 doses at least 1 month apart
Contraindications: egg sensitivity, pregnancy, immunocompromised
Not all MMR's used around the world are the same

19

How do most people in US get measles?

Usually from travel
Not from immigrants

20

What can be done to protect someone who can't receive the vaccine?

BayGam immunoglobulin can be given to help protect them

21

How is rubella different from measles?

Like measles, but very mild in comparison

22

Rubella clinical manifestations

14-21 day incubation
Minimal prodromal
Rash face then down body
Mild fever, conjunctivitis, coryza
Spread through respiratory

23

How is rubella spread?

Respiratory
Prolonged and close contact probably needed
Measles would find everyone in their youth, but rubella was less aggressive

24

Rubella type of virus

Togavirus

25

Rubella epidemiology

Usually infects older children, adolescents, young adults
Young children often escape infection

26

Rubella complications

Usually a benign infection except for CRS

CRS: Congenital Rubella Syndrome= mother infected while pregnant, spreads through placenta to fetus during first trimester and causes major malformations–cardiac, eye, hearing, CNS

27

How was CRS found?

Cataracts found in newborns

28

Rubella diagnosis

Serology detection of antibody

29

Rubella treatment and prevention

Symptomatic relief
Isolate patients for 7 days after rash
Kids with CRS infectious for at least 1 year

MMR vaccine is live attenuated, some kids get a rash, contraindicated in pregnancy

30

Why do we get a rubella vaccine if it is concidered a "nothing" disease?

It is to protect the next generation by preventing infection of mothers and thereby newborns to prevent CRS