L06: Fertilisation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L06: Fertilisation Deck (54):
1

How does cumulus-oocyte complex enter + move along uterine tubes?

Follicular fluid contains chemoattractants that attract fimbrae to ovulation site
Muscular contractions of tube transports it through

2

Describe the journey of sperm through female tract in terms of numbers

~4-250 million sperm ejaculated
100,000 make it into uterus
1000 enter each tube via uterotubal junction
10-100 sperm actually reach egg

3

Describe the journey of sperm through the female tract

Seminal plasma is alkaline so buffers acidic vagina, PSA from prostate causes clotting of semen to prevent flowback
Other enzymes cause liquefaction after 1hr
Sperm must get through cervical mucus to enter uterus - least viscous around ovulation
Contractions of myometrium propel sperm towards tubes
Stem enters tube through uterotubal junction
Chemotaxis (maybe P4) attracts more sperm towards tube with egg in
Muscular actions of tube move sperm towards egg

4

Where in the female tract does fertilisation commonly occur?

Ampulla

5

What changes occur during ovulation that make it easier for sperm to get to egg?

Thinning of cervical mucus (day 9-26), effect of oestrogen
Contraction frequency of myometrium increases
Chemotaxis towards correct tube

6

What are the obstacles faced by sperm in female tract?

1. Uterine cavity is v small
2. Has to squeeze through muscular walls
3. Folded lumen of uterine tubes cause sperm to get stuck
4. Viscous fluid within tubes

7

What is the window of fertilisation determined by?

Spermatogenesis viable for 5 days, egg only for 24h
Hence fertilisation can occur in ~6 days

8

How does sperm interact with egg?

1. Penetration of cumulus
2. Binding to ZP + acrosome reaction
3. Penetration of ZP and fusion to egg

9

How does sperm penetrate cumulus cells?

Cumulus cells embedded in hyaluronic acid matrix (holds cells together)
Sperm has hyaluronidase enzyme that breaks down + disperses cumulus

10

How does sperm penetrate ZP + fuse w egg

Hyper motility of sperm allows it to get through ZP after acrosome reaction
Sperm enters perivitelline space + equatorial segment of sperm head fuses w egg
Interaction if izumo protein + juno receptor
Egg plasma membrane engulfs sperm into vesicle
Causes large influx of Ca2+ from site of sperm entry

11

What occurs after sperm fuses w egg?

Influx of Ca2+ ACTIVATES oocyte
PLC zeta then leads to Ca oscillations every 3-15 mins for several hrs

12

What does activation of egg lead to?

1. Release of meiotic block
2. block to polyspermy

13

How does block to polyspermy occur?

Ca influx —> depolarisation which inhibits further fusion
Cortical granules release protease —> zona reaction
- hardening of ZP preventing penetration
- cleavage of ZP2 (key for sperm binding)
Junk receptor lost from egg

14

What occurs once sperm in inside egg?

Sperm DNA decondenses
Make + female pronuclei move towards eachother, guided by sperm aster (forms from centriole)
Formation of spindles from centrosome

15

What is syngamy?

Male + female genetic material combine
Pro nuclear membranes break down
Chromatic intermixes
New nuclear envelope forms
End of fertilisation + start of embryogenesis = end of syngamy + beginning of cleavage

16

What day does implantation occur?

Day 6/7

17

What day does zygote usually enter uterus

Day 4, aided by relaxed musculature due to progesterone

18

What is a major instance zygote has to cross to enter uterus?

Isthmic sphincter of uterotubal junction - this is relaxed by progesterone

19

What occurs during cleavage?

Zygote divides until morula stage (16 cells), no formation of cytoplasm hence overall size stays the same, each cell gets smaller

20

What is the significant about the 8 cell stage of cleavage?

- embryo transfer most commonly occurs for IVF (embryonic genome is activated)
- genetic testing can be done pre implantation (PCR/FISH)

21

When does the embryonic genome get activated?

4-8 cells stage

22

What controls development before activation of embryonic genes?

Egg cytoplasm - hence egg quality + maturation v important
Poor cytoplasm —> problems w early development
Embryo growth stimulated by autocrine + paracrine GFs (from tubes)

23

When does blastocyst form? Describe this process

Day 5
Formation of trophoblast + ICM
Formation of fluid filled cavity (blastocoele)
Formation of polarity (embryonic + anembryonic)

24

How does the blastocoele form?

During late morula stage, fluid absorption occurs
Na/K pump of morula cells pump Na into cavity causing water to follow
Tight junctions between trophoblast cells keeps liquid within cavity

25

What is the role of trophoblast cells?

Produces hCG which maintains corpus luteum until placenta formation

26

When is embryo transfer done in IVF?

Usually 8 cell stage
But if difficult to tell which embryo is best, can be done at blastocyst stage as key development stages have been completed hence embryos more likely to implant
- activation if genome
- past stage of totipotency (first differentiation occurred)

27

When does the embryo hatch out of ZP?

Day 6 onwards,just prior to implantation
Blastocyst expands out of hole in ZP, anembryonic pole first

28

How does implantation occur?

Window around 4 days
Pinapodes form on endometrium that absorb uterine fluid drawing blastocyst to endometrium
Immobilises blastocyst

29

What can increase risk of dizygotic twins?

Maternal age
Fertility treatment - more eggs ovulated
Multiple embryo transfer

30

What can increase risk of monozygotic twins?

IVF - embryo may be slightly damaged, increasing risk of splitting

31

Risk of monochorionic + monoamniotic twins?

Monochorionic - twin-twin transfer syndrome
Monoamniotic - entanglement of umbilical cord

32

What are the layers of the endometrium? What are the cell types found?

Upper functional layer - proliferates + sheds
Basal layer - where functional layer is rebuilt from
Stromatolites cells & luminal epithelial cells

33

Risk of monochorionic + monoamniotic twins?

Monochorionic - twin-twin transfer syndrome
Monoamniotic - entanglement of umbilical cord

34

What are the layers of the endometrium? What are the cell types found?

Upper functional layer - proliferates + sheds
Basal layer - where functional layer is rebuilt from
Stromatolites cells & luminal epithelial cells

35

Risk of monochorionic + monoamniotic twins?

Monochorionic - twin-twin transfer syndrome
Monoamniotic - entanglement of umbilical cord

36

What are the layers of the endometrium? What are the cell types found?

Upper functional layer - proliferates + sheds
Basal layer - where functional layer is rebuilt from
Stromatolites cells & luminal epithelial cells

37

Risk of monochorionic + monoamniotic twins?

Monochorionic - twin-twin transfer syndrome
Monoamniotic - entanglement of umbilical cord

38

What are the layers of the endometrium? What are the cell types found?

Upper functional layer - proliferates + sheds
Basal layer - where functional layer is rebuilt from
Stromatolites cells & luminal epithelial cells

39

Risk of monochorionic + monoamniotic twins?

Monochorionic - twin-twin transfer syndrome
Monoamniotic - entanglement of umbilical cord

40

What are the layers of the endometrium? What are the cell types found?

Upper functional layer - proliferates + sheds
Basal layer - where functional layer is rebuilt from
Stromatolites cells & luminal epithelial cells

41

Risk of monochorionic + monoamniotic twins?

Monochorionic - twin-twin transfer syndrome
Monoamniotic - entanglement of umbilical cord

42

What are the layers of the endometrium? What are the cell types found?

Upper functional layer - proliferates + sheds
Basal layer - where functional layer is rebuilt from
Stromatolites cells & luminal epithelial cells

43

Risk of monochorionic + monoamniotic twins?

Monochorionic - twin-twin transfer syndrome
Monoamniotic - entanglement of umbilical cord

44

What are the layers of the endometrium? What are the cell types found?

Upper functional layer - proliferates + sheds
Basal layer - where functional layer is rebuilt from
Stromatolites cells & luminal epithelial cells

45

Risk of monochorionic + monoamniotic twins?

Monochorionic - twin-twin transfer syndrome
Monoamniotic - entanglement of umbilical cord

46

What are the layers of the endometrium? What are the cell types found?

Upper functional layer - proliferates + sheds
Basal layer - where functional layer is rebuilt from
Stromatolites cells & luminal epithelial cells

47

Risk of monochorionic + monoamniotic twins?

Monochorionic - twin-twin transfer syndrome
Monoamniotic - entanglement of umbilical cord

48

What are the layers of the endometrium? What are the cell types found?

Upper functional layer - proliferates + sheds
Basal layer - where functional layer is rebuilt from
Stromatolites cells & luminal epithelial cells

49

Risk of monochorionic + monoamniotic twins?

Monochorionic - twin-twin transfer syndrome
Monoamniotic - entanglement of umbilical cord

50

What are the layers of the endometrium? What are the cell types found?

Upper functional layer - proliferates + sheds
Basal layer - where functional layer is rebuilt from
Stromal cells + luminal epithelial cells

51

What happens to the endometrium during proliferative/follicular phase?

Functional layer proliferates due to oestrogen
Proliferation of stromal cells + stromal oedema
Epithelial layers form glandular prtrusions into stroma - stromal cells secrete nutritional substances into these glands

52

What happens to the endometrium during secretory/luteal phase?

Stromal cells secrete nutritional substances into glands for embryo development prior to placenta
Development of spiral arteries ready for implantation

53

what happens if no implantation occurs?

No hCG to maintian corpus luteum hence it breaks down + P4 conc falls
Spiral arteries are hormone sensitive - lack of P4 --> collapse + necrosis, lost in menses

54

Ectopic pregnancy

1 in 100 pregnancies, 90% in uterine tubes
Can rupture BVs + uterine tube
Risk factos: history of PID, tubal surgery, IUD coil, failed sterilisation