L1: DNA and RNA Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L1: DNA and RNA Deck (13):
1

Why is gene expression important?

Because the functioning of any biological system depends on specific ordered chemical reactions
Which are catalysed by specific enzymes which are proteins
Genes code for proteins
These chemical reactions include growth and division (cells only arise from pre existing cells)

2

What do changes in the gene expression lead to?

Functional specialisation (differentiation)

3

What causes the differences found between organisms?

Differences in gene products
Differences in patterns of gene expression

4

In what process is DNA copied into RNA? And by which enzyme? Which organelle carry this out?

Transcription
RNA polymerase
Ribosomes

5

What is the monomer of DNA?

Deoxynucleotide

6

What does a deoxynucleotide contain?

Phosphate
Deoxyribose sugar
A base (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine)

7

What difference is there between deoxyribose and ribose?

Ribose has an O on the 2nd carbon, deoxyribose doesn’t

8

Which direction does the DNA molecule follow?

5’ end to 3’ end

9

How many H bonds are found between both pairs of bases?

A-T 2H bonds
C-G 3H bonds

10

How is RNA different to DNA?

RNA has:
Ribose instead of deoxyribose
Uracil instead of thymine

11

How does RNA polymerase synthesis RNA?

By inserting bases complementary to those in the template strand of DNA (starting from the 5’ end of the new molecule)

12

What is the RNA like stand running from 5’ to 3’ called?

The sense strand

13

What is the template strand running from 3’ to 5’ called?

Antisense strand