Flashcards in L10 - Microbial Technology Deck (13):
What is biotechnology?
The use of microorganisms to make useful products
Describe primary and secondary metabolites
Primary: produced during the exponential phase
Secondary: produced at the end of the exponential phase in the stationary phase. Not essential for growth
What do B-lactam antibiotics do?
Stop peptidoglycan cross-links forming
What micro-organism is used to produce penicillin? What kind of process is used?
Penicillium chrysogenum, in a batch culture
What nutrients and temperature are used for penicillin production?
corn steep liquor, whey, glucose and lactose
Describe the primary and secondary stages of penicillin production
Primary: focused on growth
Secondary: once optimum biomass is achieved, starve the batch so that the antibiotic is produced under stress
What is the role of insulin in the body? What is type 1 diabetes?
It regulates the uptake of sugar into cells. Type 1 diabetes is where there is a lack of insulin, resulting in a high blood sugar
Where was the insulin in industry originally taken from and why might this be a problem?
It is originally from pigs and cows, therefore it is not fully effective and may cause an allergic reaction
Describe the structure of insulin
There is an A chain and B chain which are linked together by disulphide bonds
What is Quorn?
A filamentous fungus - mycoprotein
What organism and process is used to make quorn?
Fusarium graminearum, continuous
Why was an excess of RNA in quorn a problem?
RNA is broken down to uric acid by the body, causing too higher levels of urea in the blood which causes arthritis and kidney problems