L10 - Microbial Technology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L10 - Microbial Technology Deck (13):

What is biotechnology?

The use of microorganisms to make useful products


Describe primary and secondary metabolites

Primary: produced during the exponential phase

Secondary: produced at the end of the exponential phase in the stationary phase. Not essential for growth


What do B-lactam antibiotics do?

Stop peptidoglycan cross-links forming


What micro-organism is used to produce penicillin? What kind of process is used?

Penicillium chrysogenum, in a batch culture


What nutrients and temperature are used for penicillin production?

corn steep liquor, whey, glucose and lactose


Describe the primary and secondary stages of penicillin production

Primary: focused on growth
Secondary: once optimum biomass is achieved, starve the batch so that the antibiotic is produced under stress


What is the role of insulin in the body? What is type 1 diabetes?

It regulates the uptake of sugar into cells. Type 1 diabetes is where there is a lack of insulin, resulting in a high blood sugar


Where was the insulin in industry originally taken from and why might this be a problem?

It is originally from pigs and cows, therefore it is not fully effective and may cause an allergic reaction


Describe the structure of insulin

There is an A chain and B chain which are linked together by disulphide bonds


What is Quorn?

A filamentous fungus - mycoprotein


What organism and process is used to make quorn?

Fusarium graminearum, continuous


Why was an excess of RNA in quorn a problem?

RNA is broken down to uric acid by the body, causing too higher levels of urea in the blood which causes arthritis and kidney problems


How is the RNA level reduced in quorn?

Mild heat shock at 65C for 20-30minutes allows RNAases to degrade RNA