L11 & 12: Organic Chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L11 & 12: Organic Chemistry Deck (87):
1

Define heteroatom

Any atom that isn't carbon or hydrogen

2

What are some common heteroatoms?

Nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine, bromine, iodine

3

Organic or inorganic? Oxides of carbon (CO2, CO)

Inorganic

4

Organic or inorganic? Carbonates (Na2CO3)

Inorganic

5

Organic or inorganic? Bicarbonates (NaHCO3)

Inorganic

6

Organic or inorganic? Metal carbides (CaC2)

Inorganic

7

Organic or inorganic? Metal cyanides (KCN)

Inorganic

8

Define catenation

The linkage of atoms of a single element into longer chains

9

What type of bond is formed between 2 carbon atoms?

Covalent

10

Organic or inorganic? Composed of C, H, and few other elements

Organic

11

Organic or inorganic? Covalent bonding

Organic

12

Organic or inorganic? Generally low solubility in water; high solubility in non-polar solvents.

Organic

13

Organic or inorganic? Flammable

Organic

14

Organic or inorganic? Isomerism is common

Organic

15

Organic or inorganic? Chemical reactions occur between molecules - can be slower

Organic

16

Organic or inorganic? Classified into families based on functional groups; homologous series based on chain length

Organic

17

Organic or inorganic? Composed of all known elements

Inorganic

18

Organic or inorganic? Often ionic bonding

Inorganic

19

Organic or inorganic? High solubility in water; low solubility in non-polar solvents

Inorganic

20

Organic or inorganic? Non-flammable

Inorganic

21

Organic or inorganic? Isomers are less common (only in transition metal complexes)

Inorganic

22

Organic or inorganic? Chemical reactions occur between ions - usually fast and quantitative

Inorganic

23

Organic or inorganic? Classified as acid, base, or salt

Inorganic

24

Why is it difficult to synthesise organic reagents?

Organic reactions are less predictable and harder to reproduce

25

When drawing molecules, at what angles should you set the bonds?

120°

26

What do the missing bonds mean on molecular diagrams?

Carbon bonding to a H

27

If a material is derived from a plant, what kind of molecule will it be made of?

Sugars

28

If a material is derived from animals, what kind of molecule will it be made of?

Protein

29

What are the two stable isotopes of carbon?

12 & 13

30

Does carbon form strong or weak bonds?

Strong covalent bonds

31

What is a saturated hydrocarbon?

Contains no C-C double or triple bonds; only single. E.g. alkanes

32

What is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?

Contains C-C double/triple bonds. E.g. alkenes, alkynes, aromatics

33

Saturated or unsaturated? Alkanes

Saturated

34

Saturated or unsaturated? Alkenes

Unsaturated

35

Saturated or unsaturated? Alkynes

Unsaturated

36

Saturated or unsaturated? Aromatics

Unsaturated

37

What is the simplest organic molecule?

Methane, CH4

38

What is the shape of methane?

Tetrahedral, 109.5° bonds

39

General formula CnH2n+2 is for...?

Alkanes (saturated, linear molecules)

40

CnH2n is for...?

Cycloalkanes (cyclic, saturated molecules)

41

Alkenes are [saturated/unsaturated]

Unsaturated

42

Alkynes are [saturated/unsaturated]

Unsaturated

43

Do saturated hydrocarbons have more or fewer hydrogen atoms per carbon than unsaturated?

Saturated hydrocarbons have more hydrogens per carbon atom

44

Are aromatics saturated or unsaturated?

Unsaturated

45

What is specific about aromatics?

They have one or more benzene rings

46

What is a benzene ring?

Ring of 6 carbon atoms

47

Name an alkane with 1 carbon atom

Methane

48

Name an alkane with 2 carbon atoms

Ethane

49

Name an alkane with 3 carbon atoms

Propane

50

Name an alkane with 4 carbon atoms

Butane

51

Name an alkane with 5 carbon atoms

Pentane

52

Name an alkane with 6 carbon atoms

Hexane

53

Name an alkane with 7 carbon atoms

Heptane

54

Name an alkane with 8 carbon atoms

Octane

55

What is the first step in naming alkanes?

Find and name the longest carbon chain, called the parent chain

56

From which end do you number the carbons?

The end with the most proximal attached group/side chain

57

How do you name each group attached to a carbon chain?

Designate the carbon it is attached to, and then add the identity of the group (2-methyl, 3-chloro-)

58

How do you order the groups/side chains when naming alkanes?

Alphabetically

59

When naming isomers, what does n- mean?

Alkane is unbranched

60

When naming isomers, what does iso- mean?

Alkane contains (CH3)2CH- with no other branches

This is a single methyl group on carbon #2

61

When naming isomers, what does neo- mean?

Alkane contains (CH3)3CH- and no other branches

This is 2 methyl groups on carbon #2

62

What is a primary (1°) carbon?

A carbon bonded to one other carbon atom or one heteroatom

63

What is a secondary (2°) carbon?

A carbon bonded to two other carbon atoms

64

What is a tertiary (3°) carbon?

A carbon bonded to 3 other carbon atoms

65

What is a quaternary (4°) carbon?

A carbon bonded to four other carbon atoms

66

What are the three main types of organic compound?

1) Aliphatic
2) Aromatic
3) Heterocyclic

67

True or false: Aliphatic compounds are always acyclic

False. Some are cyclic. You can have saturated and unsaturated aliphatic chains. You can also have alicyclic rings.

68

What are the three main types of cyclic organic compound?

1) Alicyclic
2) Aromatic
3) Heterocyclic

69

True or false: Aromatic rings contain only unsaturated carbon atoms

True

70

What characterises a heterocyclic compound?

Contains a ring made up of carbon and at least one other element (such as N, S or O)

71

Which of the following are true of functional groups?

A) Gives its characteristic chemical properties

B) Acts as a site of chemical reactivity

C) Serves as the basis for nomenclature

D) Classifies its family

E) All of the above

E) All of the above

72

What is the most dominant functional group in a polyfunctional compound?

Carboxylic Acid

73

Rank these functional groups according to the order of preference in polyfunctional compounds (highest ranking first):

Esters
Nitro
Nitrile
Carboxylic Acid
Alcohols
Aldehydes
Halogens
Double bond
Triple bond
Ketones
Acid anhydrides
Acid halides
Amines
Amides

1) Carboxylic acid
2) Acid anhydrides
3) Esters
4) Acid halides
5) Amides
6) Nitriles
7) Aldehydes
8) Ketones
9) Alcohols
10) Amines
11) Double bonds
12) Triple bonds
13) Halogen
14) Nitro

74

True or false: Homologues are prepared by similar methods

True

75

What is linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)?

Orbitals combine to form hybrid atomic orbitals (sp, sp2, sp3) and molecular orbitals

76

True or false: Hybrid atomic orbitals are a combination of atomic orbitals from different atoms?

False. HAOs from by hybridising orbitals from the same atom. Molecular orbitals are a combination from different atoms

77

Fill in the gap:

sp3 hybridisation forms _____ bonds only

sigma

(although single bonds is also correct)

78

Fill in the gap:

sp2 hybridisation forms ___(1)___ sigma bond(s) and ___(2)___ pi bond(s).

(1) one
(2) one

79

Which functional families use sp2 hybridisation?

Alkenes, carbonyls and aromatic rings

80

What bonds are formed by sp hybridisation?

Triple bonds (one sigma and two pi).

81

Which functional families use sp hybridisation?

Alkynes and nitriles

82

sp3 orbitals are set at what angle to each other?

A) 90
B) 109.5
C) 120
D) 180

B) 109.5

83

sp2 orbitals are set at what angle to each other?

A) 90
B) 109.5
C) 120
D) 180

C) 120

84

sp orbitals are set at what angle to each other?

A) 90
B) 109.5
C) 120
D) 180

D) 180

85

How many groups can bond to C in sp hybridisation?

2

86

How many groups can bond the C in sp2 hybridisation?

3

87

How many groups can bond to C in sp3 hybridisation?

4