Flashcards in L11 & 12: Organic Chemistry Deck (87):
Any atom that isn't carbon or hydrogen
What are some common heteroatoms?
Nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine, bromine, iodine
Organic or inorganic? Oxides of carbon (CO2, CO)
Organic or inorganic? Carbonates (Na2CO3)
Organic or inorganic? Bicarbonates (NaHCO3)
Organic or inorganic? Metal carbides (CaC2)
Organic or inorganic? Metal cyanides (KCN)
The linkage of atoms of a single element into longer chains
What type of bond is formed between 2 carbon atoms?
Organic or inorganic? Composed of C, H, and few other elements
Organic or inorganic? Covalent bonding
Organic or inorganic? Generally low solubility in water; high solubility in non-polar solvents.
Organic or inorganic? Flammable
Organic or inorganic? Isomerism is common
Organic or inorganic? Chemical reactions occur between molecules - can be slower
Organic or inorganic? Classified into families based on functional groups; homologous series based on chain length
Organic or inorganic? Composed of all known elements
Organic or inorganic? Often ionic bonding
Organic or inorganic? High solubility in water; low solubility in non-polar solvents
Organic or inorganic? Non-flammable
Organic or inorganic? Isomers are less common (only in transition metal complexes)
Organic or inorganic? Chemical reactions occur between ions - usually fast and quantitative
Organic or inorganic? Classified as acid, base, or salt
Why is it difficult to synthesise organic reagents?
Organic reactions are less predictable and harder to reproduce
When drawing molecules, at what angles should you set the bonds?
What do the missing bonds mean on molecular diagrams?
Carbon bonding to a H
If a material is derived from a plant, what kind of molecule will it be made of?
If a material is derived from animals, what kind of molecule will it be made of?
What are the two stable isotopes of carbon?
12 & 13
Does carbon form strong or weak bonds?
Strong covalent bonds
What is a saturated hydrocarbon?
Contains no C-C double or triple bonds; only single. E.g. alkanes
What is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?
Contains C-C double/triple bonds. E.g. alkenes, alkynes, aromatics
Saturated or unsaturated? Alkanes
Saturated or unsaturated? Alkenes
Saturated or unsaturated? Alkynes
Saturated or unsaturated? Aromatics
What is the simplest organic molecule?
What is the shape of methane?
Tetrahedral, 109.5° bonds
General formula CnH2n+2 is for...?
Alkanes (saturated, linear molecules)
CnH2n is for...?
Cycloalkanes (cyclic, saturated molecules)
Alkenes are [saturated/unsaturated]
Alkynes are [saturated/unsaturated]
Do saturated hydrocarbons have more or fewer hydrogen atoms per carbon than unsaturated?
Saturated hydrocarbons have more hydrogens per carbon atom
Are aromatics saturated or unsaturated?
What is specific about aromatics?
They have one or more benzene rings
What is a benzene ring?
Ring of 6 carbon atoms
Name an alkane with 1 carbon atom
Name an alkane with 2 carbon atoms
Name an alkane with 3 carbon atoms
Name an alkane with 4 carbon atoms
Name an alkane with 5 carbon atoms
Name an alkane with 6 carbon atoms
Name an alkane with 7 carbon atoms
Name an alkane with 8 carbon atoms
What is the first step in naming alkanes?
Find and name the longest carbon chain, called the parent chain
From which end do you number the carbons?
The end with the most proximal attached group/side chain
How do you name each group attached to a carbon chain?
Designate the carbon it is attached to, and then add the identity of the group (2-methyl, 3-chloro-)
How do you order the groups/side chains when naming alkanes?
When naming isomers, what does n- mean?
Alkane is unbranched
When naming isomers, what does iso- mean?
Alkane contains (CH3)2CH- with no other branches
This is a single methyl group on carbon #2
When naming isomers, what does neo- mean?
Alkane contains (CH3)3CH- and no other branches
This is 2 methyl groups on carbon #2
What is a primary (1°) carbon?
A carbon bonded to one other carbon atom or one heteroatom
What is a secondary (2°) carbon?
A carbon bonded to two other carbon atoms
What is a tertiary (3°) carbon?
A carbon bonded to 3 other carbon atoms
What is a quaternary (4°) carbon?
A carbon bonded to four other carbon atoms
What are the three main types of organic compound?
True or false: Aliphatic compounds are always acyclic
False. Some are cyclic. You can have saturated and unsaturated aliphatic chains. You can also have alicyclic rings.
What are the three main types of cyclic organic compound?
True or false: Aromatic rings contain only unsaturated carbon atoms
What characterises a heterocyclic compound?
Contains a ring made up of carbon and at least one other element (such as N, S or O)
Which of the following are true of functional groups?
A) Gives its characteristic chemical properties
B) Acts as a site of chemical reactivity
C) Serves as the basis for nomenclature
D) Classifies its family
E) All of the above
E) All of the above
What is the most dominant functional group in a polyfunctional compound?
Rank these functional groups according to the order of preference in polyfunctional compounds (highest ranking first):
1) Carboxylic acid
2) Acid anhydrides
4) Acid halides
11) Double bonds
12) Triple bonds
True or false: Homologues are prepared by similar methods
What is linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)?
Orbitals combine to form hybrid atomic orbitals (sp, sp2, sp3) and molecular orbitals
True or false: Hybrid atomic orbitals are a combination of atomic orbitals from different atoms?
False. HAOs from by hybridising orbitals from the same atom. Molecular orbitals are a combination from different atoms
Fill in the gap:
sp3 hybridisation forms _____ bonds only
(although single bonds is also correct)
Fill in the gap:
sp2 hybridisation forms ___(1)___ sigma bond(s) and ___(2)___ pi bond(s).
Which functional families use sp2 hybridisation?
Alkenes, carbonyls and aromatic rings
What bonds are formed by sp hybridisation?
Triple bonds (one sigma and two pi).
Which functional families use sp hybridisation?
Alkynes and nitriles
sp3 orbitals are set at what angle to each other?
sp2 orbitals are set at what angle to each other?
sp orbitals are set at what angle to each other?
How many groups can bond to C in sp hybridisation?
How many groups can bond the C in sp2 hybridisation?