L12 - Human Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L12 - Human Diseases Deck (15):

What are the 2 main pathogens that cause meningitis?

Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae


What is the route of meningitis and hat symptoms does it cause?

meningitis is contracted as either a bacteria or virus (bacterial is more serious). Bacteria would cross from the blood to tissues around the brain and spinal cord and toxins would cause inflammation of these tissues

Leads to headache, stiff neck, drowsiness, rash, tiredness, dislike of bright light


What causes the symptoms of septicaemia?

Bacteria enter the blood and produce toxins. This causes the blood vessels to dilate causing shock as the blood pressure drops dramatically. Because blog pressure is low HR and breathing increases and blood is cut off from the peripheral nervous system. eventually leads to heart and organ failure.


What type and shape is Neisseria meningitidis?

Gram negative, cocci shape usually in pairs. Usually found in the nose, throat and upper respiratory tract unpathogenically


Describe the structure of the HIV virus

Single stranded RNA, retrovirus.


How does the HIV virus enter the cell?

The envelop fuses with the cell membrane allowing the capsid to enter. Once inside the capsid breaks down releasing RNA. The RNA codes for Reverse Transcriptase which changed the RNA to DNA, which is then inserted into the genome of the host, where it can stay dormant for years


What does AIDS stand for

Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome


What virus family is Ebola a member of?



Does Ebola contain single or double stranded DNA or RNA?

single stranded RNA


What are the 3 outer layers of the Ebola virus?

Has a nucleocapsid surrounded by helical capsid.
Surrounded by a lipoprotein layer derived from host cell


How many proteins does the Ebola virus genome code for?



How is Zoonotic disease transmitted?

direct contact of eyes, mouth, skin openings with body fluids or tissue from infected individuals


What are the symptoms of Zoonotic disease?

initially flu-like followed by vomiting, bloody diarrhoea, jaundice
Haemorrhagic fever as causes haemorrhages due to damage of endothelial cells lining blood vessels


What protozoans cause Malaria?

Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum


What does malaria cause?

Results in rupture of red blood cells releasing toxins and debris