Flashcards in L14 - the immune response to placental malaria Deck (19):
What are the life cyle stages of malaria?
Sporazoite enters blood
goes to liver
replicates and makes gametocytes that reenter the blood
What causes the decline in deaths as one ages?
acquisition of a wide range of antibodies that can detect the parasite
Cytoadhesion plays an important role in the parasites ability to....
escape clearnace by the spleen and contributes to the development of some severe malaria syndromes including pacental malaria
What is cytoadhesion of the infected RBC largely due to?
expressio of parasite proteins on the surface of the RBC, such as PfEMP1 (encoded b the var genes, of which there are 60 different variants)
PfEMP1 has a different function depending on its...
Serum proteins, endothelium, T cells
true or false
the bind of variant surface antigens on the surface of the infected RBC, such as PfEMP1, to host cells (e.g endothelial cells, immune cells) only has consequences for the host cell
the bind of variant surface antigens on the surface of the infected RBC, such as PfEMP1, to host cells (e.g endothelial cells, immune cells) has consequences for the host cell and the PARASITE
_______ appears to be a key factor in the development of adverse outcomes associated with placental malaria
What is Gravidity?
the number of times a woman has been pregnant
What two ways may antibodies recognising the pregnancy specific P. faliparum can enhance protection?
1. Block adhesion to infected RBC to the placenta
2. Allow uptake and removal of the infected RNA by phagocytosis
intervillositis is associated with...
poor pregnancy outcomes
(ahesion malaria in placneta)
true or false
Malaria during pregnancy is not always detected by readily available techniques and submicroscopic malaria may be contributing to pooor birth outcomes
Peak prevalence of material P.falicparum infections occur __-__ weeks gestation
What is the evidence for altered placental development?
infection in early pregnancy associated with increased risk of low birth weight
ultrasound studies show impaired utero-placental blood flow
Malaria early in pregnancy may disrupt the development of the _____and this may lead to placental insufficiency and __growth restriction
Malaria early in pregnancy may disrupt the development of the placenta and this may lead to placental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction
Peak parasitemia conincides with _____development
Peak parasitemia conincides with placental development
ultrasound studies show altered ____ ____ in the placenta of p.falciparum-infected women
ultrasound studies show altered blood flow in the placenta of p.falciparum-infected women
In vitro studies show restricted movement of ______in the presense of the plasma from women with malaria
In vitro studies show restricted movement of trophoblasts in the presense of the plasma from women with malaria
What is CSA?
family of glycosaminoglycans prsent in the placenta durinthe 2/3 trimester - reduce ROS and promote tissue repair and suppress immune response