Flashcards in L15 Deck (14):
ACTIONS of Thyroid Hormones
2. Growth and development
(In childhood, essential for normal growth and mental development)
Thermogenesis jako action of thyroid hormones - (a,b)
Stimulate oxidative metabolism and so generate heat
a) Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
b) Long term adaption to cold
Opisz Iodine deficiency
i jak temu zapobiec
In the absence of iodine, and therefore low T4:
TRH/TSH release is increased
BUT thyroid cannot make T4
but TSH growth-promoting effects still take place
Iodine has to be obtained from the diet
Do czego prowadzi Iodine deficiency
leads to Goitre (enlarged thyroid)
Opisz HYPERTHYROIDISM -
do jakiej choroby to prowadzi
Graves disease, where antibodies stimulate the TSH receptor leading to Goitre,
protrusion of eyeballs,
Opisz HYPOTHYROIDISM -
inna nazwa choroby
Autoimmune disease where the thyroid is destroyed and so no thyroid hormone is made:
Sensitive to cold,
loss of hair,
Thyroid disorders common and affect .... % of the population
Lack of thyroid hormones in childhood leads to a child being ....
mentally impaired (cretin)
A person’s height is determined specifically by
....., particularly the ......... and ..... Even though it's dependent on ............................ Moreover, The process involves cell division and net protein synthesis throughout the body.
vertebral column and legs
genetics, endocrine function, and a variety of nvironmental factors, including nutrition
Important hormones for growth are:
Growth Hormone (GH)
Thyroid Hormones- fetal development
Vitamin D metabolites
Wymień (hormony) co jest niezbędne do normalnego wzrostu i co w nadmiarze szkodzi (2)
normal secretion of Insulin required
and too much cortisol inhibits growth
Wymień short term effects of growth hormone
1) Influences fat and carbohydrate metabolism
During starvation, persistent low glucose enhances GH release.
- Switch from carbohydrate utilisation to fats sparing glucose for the brain
How can an organ enlarge by Growth? (2)
 The number of its constituent cells increase.
Increase due to cell division (HYPERPLASIA).
 The content of its constituent cells increase.
Increase due to size. (HYPERTROPHY)