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Flashcards in L15 Deck (14):
1

ACTIONS of Thyroid Hormones

1. Thermogenesis
2. Growth and development
(In childhood, essential for normal growth and mental development)

2

Thermogenesis jako action of thyroid hormones - (a,b)

Stimulate oxidative metabolism and so generate heat
a) Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
b) Long term adaption to cold

3

Opisz Iodine deficiency
i jak temu zapobiec

In the absence of iodine, and therefore low T4:

TRH/TSH release is increased
BUT thyroid cannot make T4
but TSH growth-promoting effects still take place



Iodine has to be obtained from the diet

4

Do czego prowadzi Iodine deficiency

leads to Goitre (enlarged thyroid)

5

Opisz HYPERTHYROIDISM -
do jakiej choroby to prowadzi

Graves disease, where antibodies stimulate the TSH receptor leading to Goitre,

protrusion of eyeballs,
nervousness,
weight loss,
increased BMR’

6

Opisz HYPOTHYROIDISM -
inna nazwa choroby

Autoimmune disease where the thyroid is destroyed and so no thyroid hormone is made:

Hashimoto’s disease:

Sensitive to cold,
loss of hair,
impaired memory,
Mental dullness,
lethargy,
weight gain;

7

Thyroid disorders common and affect .... % of the population

1-2

8

Lack of thyroid hormones in childhood leads to a child being ....

mentally impaired (cretin)

9

A person’s height is determined specifically by
....., particularly the ......... and ..... Even though it's dependent on ............................ Moreover, The process involves cell division and net protein synthesis throughout the body.

bone growth
vertebral column and legs

genetics, endocrine function, and a variety of nvironmental factors, including nutrition

10

Important hormones for growth are:

Growth Hormone (GH)
Thyroid Hormones- fetal development
Vitamin D metabolites
Parathyroid Hormones
Gonadal steroids

11

Wymień (hormony) co jest niezbędne do normalnego wzrostu i co w nadmiarze szkodzi (2)

normal secretion of Insulin required
and too much cortisol inhibits growth

12



Wymień short term effects of growth hormone

1) Influences fat and carbohydrate metabolism

During starvation, persistent low glucose enhances GH release.
- Switch from carbohydrate utilisation to fats sparing glucose for the brain

13

How can an organ enlarge by Growth? (2)

[1] The number of its constituent cells increase.
Increase due to cell division (HYPERPLASIA).
[2] The content of its constituent cells increase.
Increase due to size. (HYPERTROPHY)

14

Opowiedz o abnormal mass of proliferating cells i nazwij ten proces



When cells fail to obey the rules of growth, and multiply excessively, an abnormal mass of proliferating cells (NEOPLASIA) is obtained.

Benign neoplasms grow slowly and do not metastasize (spread to distant sites). Malignant neoplasms are poorly differentiated, grow rapidly and metastasize via the blood or Lymph.
Common cancers are skin, lung, colon, breast, prostate and urinary bladder.
Growth mainly due HYPERPLASIA.