L26: Bone & Fat Flashcards Preview

Host Defense Exam 2 (by Richie) > L26: Bone & Fat > Flashcards

Flashcards in L26: Bone & Fat Deck (27):
1

Objectives?


 Explain how three cytokines regulate a balance between bone breakdown and formation.
 Understand how Th17 immune responses can perturb normal bone remodeling.
 Discuss the importance of adipose tissue cytokine systems and their control of
energy metabolism.
 Demonstrate the logic supporting attempts to manipulate adipocytokines to control obesity.
 describe the clinical implications of activating the innate immune functions of microglia in the brain

2

Learning goal?

The student will be able to understand that not only is the immune system important for resistance to infection but regional immune systems have developed additional functions like maintenance of bone, control of energy homeostasis and protecting the brain from “collateral” damage.

3

Decoy receptor for RANKL

OPG

4

Ratio of what two factors determine bone formation

RANKL:OPG

5

Any condition that promotes _______ dominance is associated with bone pathology

osteoclast

6

Aside from OB, who else can secrete RANKL

T & B cells, DC, monocytes, neutrophils....

7

What cytokine milieu induce RANKL and thus OC activity?

Proinflammatory cytokines
IL 1
IL 6
IL 8
TNF-alpha
******IL 17 *****

8

What cytokines inhibit OC activity

IL 4
IL 10

9

Which of the following responses does NOT induce RANKL and bone remodeling?
A. Th1 response
B. Th2 response
C. Th17 response
D. TMMI response

B. Th2 response

(inhibits Th17 response)

10

Rheumatoid arthritis synovium will express lots of what cytokine?

IL 23

11

What inhibits Th17 response

Th2 response

12

In Pannus, what cells are infiltrating?

Th17

13

What are the 2 kinds of macrophages in WAT

M1 and M2

14

Which WAT macrophage is pro-inflammatory? anti-inflammatory?

M1 is pro-inflammatory
M2 is anti-inflammatory

(1st year medical students are neurotic; 2nd year are more seasoned)

15

Name 5 cytokines secreted by M1 macrophages

IL168
TNFalpha
Osteopontin
CCL2
Resistant antagonist adiponectin

16

In addition to macrophages, WAT also has pro/anti-inflammatory adipocytes. Name 2 cytokines secreted by the pro-inflammatory adipocytes secrete!

Leptin
Visfatin (also pro-angiogenic)

17

Name 2 cytokines secreted from anti-inflammatory adipocytes

Adiponectin
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine (promotes adiponectin release)

18

Leptin. Pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory?

Pro

19

Adiponectin. Pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory?

anti

20

Macrophage inhibitory cytokine. Pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory?

anti

21

visfatin. Pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory?

pro

22

What promotes adiponectin release?

Macrophage inhibitory cytokine

23

CCL2. Pro or anti-inflammatory?

pro

24

Which chemokine is secreted from "local obesity" plaques

CCL2

25

Normally, WAT should have a slightly ______ milieu

anti-inflammatory

26

Name 2 types of microglia in brain

1. perivascular
2. early-migrating (DC/M2-like, highly branched)

27

What cytokine promotes delirium?

IL-6