Flashcards in L26: Bone & Fat Deck (27):
Explain how three cytokines regulate a balance between bone breakdown and formation.
Understand how Th17 immune responses can perturb normal bone remodeling.
Discuss the importance of adipose tissue cytokine systems and their control of
Demonstrate the logic supporting attempts to manipulate adipocytokines to control obesity.
describe the clinical implications of activating the innate immune functions of microglia in the brain
The student will be able to understand that not only is the immune system important for resistance to infection but regional immune systems have developed additional functions like maintenance of bone, control of energy homeostasis and protecting the brain from “collateral” damage.
Decoy receptor for RANKL
Ratio of what two factors determine bone formation
Any condition that promotes _______ dominance is associated with bone pathology
Aside from OB, who else can secrete RANKL
T & B cells, DC, monocytes, neutrophils....
What cytokine milieu induce RANKL and thus OC activity?
******IL 17 *****
What cytokines inhibit OC activity
Which of the following responses does NOT induce RANKL and bone remodeling?
A. Th1 response
B. Th2 response
C. Th17 response
D. TMMI response
B. Th2 response
(inhibits Th17 response)
Rheumatoid arthritis synovium will express lots of what cytokine?
What inhibits Th17 response
In Pannus, what cells are infiltrating?
What are the 2 kinds of macrophages in WAT
M1 and M2
Which WAT macrophage is pro-inflammatory? anti-inflammatory?
M1 is pro-inflammatory
M2 is anti-inflammatory
(1st year medical students are neurotic; 2nd year are more seasoned)
Name 5 cytokines secreted by M1 macrophages
Resistant antagonist adiponectin
In addition to macrophages, WAT also has pro/anti-inflammatory adipocytes. Name 2 cytokines secreted by the pro-inflammatory adipocytes secrete!
Visfatin (also pro-angiogenic)
Name 2 cytokines secreted from anti-inflammatory adipocytes
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine (promotes adiponectin release)
Leptin. Pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory?
Adiponectin. Pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory?
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine. Pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory?
visfatin. Pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory?
What promotes adiponectin release?
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine
CCL2. Pro or anti-inflammatory?
Which chemokine is secreted from "local obesity" plaques
Normally, WAT should have a slightly ______ milieu
Name 2 types of microglia in brain
2. early-migrating (DC/M2-like, highly branched)