decoy for RANKL. It binds RANKL.
What is the normal range of calcium (normal)?
2.2-2.5mM (tightly regulated)
good indicator of free Ca2+ availability
2 regulators of Ca2+
Vitamin D PTH
What cells secrete PTH
These cells increase with age and chronic kidney disease. No known function.
bone and kidney
Net effect of PTH
increase plasma Ca, decrease plasma Pi
Process of mineralizing/hardening bone...via osteoblasts
PTH receptors are located on osteoblasts or osteoclasts?
PTH stimulates osteoblasts to make
M-CSF. Causes stem cells to differentiate into osteoclasts
What ligand activates mature osteoclasts?
What makes RANKL?
What does cortisol do to OPG?
Inhibits it. This allows excess RANKL to stimulate osteoclasts, making more bone breakdown than normal.
2 effects of PTH on kidney
Calcium sensing receptor
Where is CaSR located?
Kidney, Chief cells, C-cells
Direct and indirect actions of CaSR
Direct and indirect actions of 1,25 Vitamin D
Does D3 have a high affinity for vitamin D receptor?
3 targets of VitD
Bone gut kidney
Primary vs. secondary hyperparathyroidism
Twitching of facial muscles in response to tapping CNVII