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Flashcards in Lab #1 Deck (49):
1

Characteristics of Protozoa

Protist (“first animals”)
Mostly heterotrophic and unicellular
Lack a rigid cellulose cell wall or a chitinous cell wall
Domain eukarya

2

Organisms that are Protozoa

Diplomonads and parabasalids
Euglenozoans
Alveolates
Stramenophiles
Amoebozons

3

Diplomonads and parabasalids characteristics

Two nuclei
Organelles called mitosomes (reduced mitochondria)
Parabasalids contain a parabasal body that is associated with the Golgi apparatus; carry out anaerobic respiration, releasing hydrogen gas
Protozoa

4

An example of diplomonads and parabasalids

D: Giardia lamblia (causes giardiasis-diarrhea from drinking creek water)
P: Trichomonas vaginalis (sexually transmitted)

5

Euglenozoans characteristics

Unicellular
Contain a unique crystalline rod associated with their flagellum
Some are pathogens
Compromised of kinetoplatids and euglenids

6

Kinetoplastids characteristics and 3 examples

Single large mitochondria that contains kinetoplast (a large mass of DNA)
Trypanosoma brucei (African sleeping sickness)
Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas’ disease)
Leishmania major (leishmaniasis)

7

Euglenids characteristics and an example

Either Heterotrophic or phototrophic bc they have chloroplasts
Nonpathigens
Primarily in aquatic habitats where many subsist on bacteria
Food is taken in by phagocytosis (cytoplasmic membrane surrounds the food and brings it into the cell for digestion)
Euglena

8

Alveolates characteristics

Contain sacs called alveoli (associate with the cytoplasmic membrane that may function in maintaining the osmotic balance of the cell)
Compromised of ciliates, dinoflagellates, apicomplexans

9

Ciliates characteristics

Have two kinds of nuclei, micronuclei (genes function in sexual reproduction) and macronuclei (genes encoding for cellular functions)
Covered in cilia that function in motility and digestion

10

Examples ciliates

Paramecium-reproduce by conjugation (two cells fuse and exchange micronuclei)
Vorticella and Zoothamnium-can attach to solid surfaces
Stentor-pigmented blue
Blepharisma- pigmented pink
Paramecium busaria-pigmented green
Balantidium coli- intestinal pathogen

11

Dinoflagellates characteristics and example

Have two flagella at different lengths that cause the cell to whirl or spin
Some are bioluminescent
Produce “red tides” caused by xanthophyll in the cells
Gonyaulax produce saxitoxin (a neurotoxin) that causes dizziness, numbness of the lips, and difficulty breathing

12

Stramenophiles characteristics

Composed of oomycetes (water molds), the diatoms, the golden algae, and the multicellular paeophytes (which includes seaweed)
Unicellular
Short, hairlike flagella (where its name comes from)

13

Diatoms characteristics and an example

Phototrophic freshwater and marine organisms
Synthesize a cell wall composed of silica
External portion of the wall is called a frustule that remains after death and doesn’t decay (fossil)
Nitzschia is a common diatom

14

Golden algae characteristics and an example

Aka chrysophytes
Some are chemoorgantrophs (get food from the transport of organic compounds across the cytoplasmic membrane)
Two flagella get the gold color from a carotenoids called fucoxanthin
Dinobryon golden algae that occurs in fresh water

15

Amoeboza characteristics

In terrestrial and aquatic habitats
Composed of gymnamoebas, entamoebas, the slime molds, and the cellular slime molds

16

Gymnamoebas characteristics

Primarily free living
Move by extending pseudopodia and streaming the cell cytoplasm into the tip

17

Entamoebas characteristics and an example

Parasites
Entamoeaba histolytica causes amoebic dysentery; fecal contamination in water or food; causes ulceration in the intention

18

Algae characteristics

Oxygen is photosynthesis
Asexual and sexual
Many have flagellum
Members of the phytoplankton
Symbiotic relationship with fungi called lichens
Related genetically to other protist

19

Red and green algae characteristics

Belong to the rhodophytes and chlorophytes
May be unicellular, colonial, or filamentous
Agar is abstracted from the seaweed Gelidium, a red algae
Includes unicellular red algae and unicellular green algae

20

Unicellular red algae characteristics

May have one or more flagella
Contain chloroplast that carry out photosynthesis (have chlorophyll a but not b)
Also have phycobiliproteins which assist in harvesting light
Red coloration is due to the presence of phycoerythrin (one of the phycobiliproteins)

21

Unicellular green algae characteristics and examples

Contain chlorophyll a and b
Store starch granules as a energy reserve
“Desmids”- a unique group of green algae who contain semi-cells: examples-Spirogyra and Desmidium
Chlamydomonas is an example of a unicellular green algae
Colonial forms of green algae include Pandorina, Eudorina, Gonium, and Volvox

22

Cyanobacteria characteristics

First to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis
Divided into 5 morphological groups
Lack an organized nucleus or chloroplast and don’t contain organelles (prokaryote)
Have phycobiliproteins which serve as light-harvesting molecules
Contain thylakoids (parallel arrays of stacked membranes)

23

Fungi that form colonies composed of microscopic, rounded, intertwining filaments called hyphae

Mold

24

Fungi are saphrophytes... what does that mean

Organism that obtain their nutritional needs from degreasing organic materials in the environment

25

Fungi secrete this to break down polysaccharides and proteins into their monomeric components of sugars, peptides, and amino acids, which are utilized for nutrition

Exoenzyme

26

Hyphae cover the surface of a substrate to form a branching, filamentous network called a what

Mycelium

27

Fungi that do not ordinarily form hyphae

Yeasts

28

When a bud doesn’t separate during bidding and makes a chain of cells

Pseudohyphae

29

What does it mean if a pathogenic fungi is dimorphic

They occur as yeast cells and reproduce by budding, but form mycelia and typical sporulation structures when cultured onto nutrient media

30

What are dermatophytes and give an example

Infect skin, hair, and nails in humans and causes disease such as athletes food and ring worm
Trichophyton

31

Type of yeast that can infect the mouth and tongue, especially newborns, to cause thrush, causing the tissue to have a chalky appearance

Candida albicans

32

A fungus that infects grain to produce ergot alkaloids that can cause hallucinations and death (Salem)

Claviceps

33

A fungus that produces Roquefort and blue cheese when it grows

Penicillium

34

Mushroom that humans can consume

Agaricus

35

Close symbiotic associations between fungi and plant roots

Mycorrhizae

36

Fungi form symbiotic associations with algae and Cyanobacteria called what

Lichens

37

Types of asexual spores

Sporangiospores
Canidia
Phialospores
Blastoconidia
Arthrospores
Chlamydospores

38

Sporangiospores

Form within a thick-walled sac called a sporangium
Can either be motile or nonmotile

39

Conidia

Nonmotile asexual spores that form on specialized hyphae called conidiophores
Includes phialospores, blastoconidia, arthrospores, and chlamydospores

40

Phialospores

Produced on a vase- or flask-shaped cell called a phialide
Found in Penicillium and Gliocladium

41

Blastoconidia

Present in some filamentous fungi and occur by budding in yeast cells
Cladosporium and Candida produce these

42

Arthrospores

Form by the fragmentation and formation of cross-walls in preexisting hyphae
Occur in Geotrichum and Galactomyces

43

Chlamydospores

Asexual, thick-walled spores that are round or irregular
Occur in most fungi and may function in survival

44

Sexual spores

Zygospores
Ascospores
Basidiospores

45

Zygospores

Formed by the fusion of genetic exchange between hyphae which have formed gametangia (specialized hyphae). The hyphae are genetically distinct. The common bread mold Rhizopus forms zygospores

46

Ascospores

Haploid sexual spores formed in the interior of an oval or elongated structure called an ascus. Example- Chaetomium

47

Basidiospores

Sexual haploid spores produced externally on a club-shaped basidium
Produced by mushrooms such as Agaricus campestris

48

5 groups of fungi (divided based on genetic analysis of ribosomal RNA)

Chytridiomycetes
Zygomycetes
Glomeromycetes
Ascomycetes
Basidiomycetes

49

Apicomplexans characteristics and examples

Obligate parasites in animals and humans
Cause of malaria (Plasmodium spp.), toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii), and coccidiosis (Eimeria)
Produce resting stages called sporozoites that facilitate transmission of the pathogen
The cells contain structures called apicoplasts which are vestiges of chloroplasts that have degenerated
No photosynthetic pigments, but do have some genes that encode for fatty acid and heme synthesis