Lab 11 (part 1 of 2) - Reproductive Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab 11 (part 1 of 2) - Reproductive Physiology Deck (31):
1

Meiosis involves the production of ___ which are ___ (they have ___ chromosomes each),

which, upon fertilization, will become ___ (they have ___ chromosomes).

Meiosis involves the production of GAMETES (sperm/ova) which are HAPLOID (they have 23 chromosomes each),

which, upon fertilization, will become DIPLOID (they have 46 chromosomes).

2

How many cycles does meiosis have, and what is the result?

Meiosis has 2 cycles (Meiosis I and Meiosis II),

which result in 4 haploid cells.

3

List the steps involved in meiosis (both I and II).

Interphase

Prophase I
Metaphase I
Anaphase I
Telophase I
Cytokinesis

Prophase II
Metaphase II
Anaphase II
Telophase II
Cytokinesis

4

What is the state of the chromosomes during interphase?

They are unwound chromosomes called chromatin.

5

Define tetrads.

Homologous chromosomes paired up to form small groups of 4 chromatids

6

Explain:

Prophase I

- Crossing over of 23 tetrads to share DNA

- Genetic recombination

7

Explain:

Metaphase I

Tetrads align on the metaphase plate/equator

8

Explain:

Anaphase I

Homologues split and move away from each other

9

Explain:

Cytokinesis (at the end of Meiosis I)

- Cytoplasm creates a cleavage furrow until ultimately dividing into 2

- Produces 2 haploid cells

- Each haploid cell contains:
# 46 chromatids
# 1 member of each original homologous pair

10

Which meiosis is performed the same way as mitosis?

Meiosis II

11

How is Prophase II different from Prophase I?

Prophase II is performed with individual chromosomes,

whereas Prophase I is performed with tetrads.

12

Explain:

Metaphase II

Chromosomes align on metaphase plate/equator

13

Explain:

Anaphase II

Chromatids split and move away from each other

14

Explain:

Cytokinesis (at the end of Meiosis II)

- Produces 4 haploid cells

- Each haploid cell contains:
# 23 chromatids

15

Production of sperm cells

Spermatogenesis

16

When does spermatogenesis begin?

At puberty

17

What stimulates sperm production?

LH and FSH

18

What stimulates testosterone production?

LH/ICSH

19

How much sperm is included in the average male ejaculate?

1/4 billion sperm

20

How much sperm is included in the average male ejaculate?

1/4 billion sperm

21

Where does spermatogenesis occur?

In the seminiferous tubules in the testes

22

Where are immature and mature sperm found?

- Immature cells are at the periphery of the seminiferous tubule

- Mature cells are toward/in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule

23

Where are immature and mature sperm found?

- Immature cells are at the periphery of the seminiferous tubule

- Mature cells are toward/in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule

24

List the stages of the sperm as it undergoes spermatogenesis.

Spermatogonium (2n)
Primary spermatocyte (2n)
Secondary spermatocytes (n)
Spermatids (n)
Spermatozoa (n)

25

List the stages of the sperm as it undergoes spermatogenesis.

Spermatogonium (2n)
Primary spermatocyte (2n)
Secondary spermatocytes (n)
Spermatids (n)
Spermatozoa (n)

26

Explain:

Spermiogenesis

- Making spermatozoa (functional sperm) from spermatids

- Lose cytoplasm, gain tail, etc.

27

Explain:

Spermiogenesis

- Making spermatozoa (functional sperm) from spermatids

- Lose cytoplasm, gain tail, etc.

28

What are the alternate names for Sertoli cells?

- Sustentacular cells
- Sustenocytes
- Nurse cells

29

What is the function of Sertoli cells?

Nourish spermatids as they go through spermiogenesis to become spermatozoa

30

What is the function of Sertoli cells?

Nourish spermatids as they go through spermiogenesis to become spermatozoa

31

What is the ratio for spermatogenesis products?

1 spermatogonium
|
|
\|/
4 spermatozoa

(1:4 ratio)