Lab 2: Brain Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab 2: Brain Deck (82)
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31

What doe the folding of cortex into gyri and sulci allow?

It triples the available area of the cortex.

32

Which structure of the brain is sometimes cut twice in one coronal slice because of its arc-shape?

Corpus callosum

33

In a coronal section, what are the basal ganglia made up of?

Caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus

34

What are the functions of the basal ganglia?

Motor centres which initiate and terminate gross body movements and control muscle tone.

35

In a coronal section, what is the diencephalon made up of?

Thalamus, hypothalamus, third ventricle, internal capsule

36

What is the internal capsule?

The great white matter tract which carries all information to and from the cortex.

37

In a coronal section, what does the midbrain consist of?

Superior and inferior colliculi, cerebral aqueduct, cerebral peduncles, substantia nigra

38

What is the function of the substantia nigra?

Functions as part of the basal ganglia controlling unconscious body movements.

39

What is the hindbrain made up of in a coronal slice?

Pons, cerebellum, fourth ventricle

40

What are the three types of cranial meninges?

1) dura mater
2) arachnoid mater
3) pia mater

41

What separates the two hemispheres?

Falx cerebri

42

What separates the two hemispheres of the cerebellum?

Falx cerebelli

43

What separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum?

Tentorium cerebelli

44

What is cerebrospinal fluid?

A clear, colourless liquid composed primarily of water.

45

How does blood flow to the brain?

Mainly via the internal carotid and vertebral arteries.

46

What does the blood-brain barrier consist mainly of?

Tight junctions that seal together the endothelial cells of brain blood capillaries and a thick basement membrane that surrounds the capillaries.

47

How many lateral ventricles are there in each hemisphere?

One

48

What is the shape of the third ventricle?

Narrow slitlike cavity along the midline superior to the hypothalamus and between the right and left halves of the thalamus.

49

Where does the fourth ventricle lie?

Between the brain stem and cerebellum

50

What are the three basic functions of the CSF?

1) Mechanical protection
2) Homeostatic function
3) Circulation

51

What is the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier formed by?

Tight junctions of ependymal cells.

52

What is meant by contralateral control?

One side of the brain controles the opposite side of the body

53

What is meant by saggital and parasaggital section?

Saggital: straight down the middle
Parasaggital: To the side of the centre so misses structures

54

What is the anterior and posterior region of the primary visual cortex responsible for?

A: Peripheral vision
P: Central vision

55

During a collision with the back of the head, what is affected?

Central vision

56

What is the function of a mammillary body?

Olfactory (smell) reflexes

57

What link does the pituitary provide?

Neural-hormonal link

58

What is the purpose of the thalamus?

Switchboard which distinguishes between conscious and subconscious awareness/reaction. It may send information to the cortex (conscious) or basal ganglia in the cerebellum (unconscious reflexes).

59

What surrounds the intermediate mass and the left and right side of the thalamus?

Cerebrospinal fluid

60

State what the superior and inferior colliculi control.

Sight and sound reflexes