Lab 3 - Cardiovascular System: Heart Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab 3 - Cardiovascular System: Heart Anatomy and Physiology Deck (65):
1

Complete this poem:

The heart is the size of a ___
that lies within the ___
with its apex pointing to the ___
just above the ___.

The heart is the size of a FIST
that lies within the MEDIASTINUM
with its apex pointing to the LEFT
just above the DIAPHRAGM.

2

5 Layers of the Heart (from most external to most internal)

1. Fibrous pericardium
2. Parietal pericardium
3. Visceral pericardium (Epicardium)
4. Myocardium
5. Endocardium

3

What are the distinguishing characteristics of this heart layer?

Fibrous pericardium

Dense CT

4

What are the distinguishing characteristics of this heart layer?

Parietal pericardium

- Serous membrane
- Lines cavity
- Serous fluid between parietal and visceral pericardium

5

What are the distinguishing characteristics of this heart layer?

Visceral pericardium (Epicardium)

- Serous membrane
- Lines external heart

6

What are the distinguishing characteristics of this heart layer?

Myocardium

Heart muscle

7

What are the distinguishing characteristics of this heart layer?

Endocardium

- Serous membrane
- Lines internal heart

8

4 Heart Chambers

2 atria:
- Right atrium
- Left atrium

2 ventricles:
- Right ventricle
- Left ventricle

9

Heart valves open when ...

Heart valves open when blood moves from one chamber into another.

10

Heart valves close when ...

Heart valves close when internal heart pressure increases to prevent backflow of blood.

11

4 Heart Valves

2 atrioventricular valves:
- Right = tricuspid valve
- Left = bicuspid/mitral valve

2 semilunar valves:
- Right = pulmonary semilunar valve
- Left = aortic semilunar valve

12

What is the purpose of the atrioventricular valves?

Connect atria and ventricles together

13

Name the 2 atrioventricular valves

- Right = tricuspid valve
- Left = bicuspid/mitral valve

14

What is the purpose of the semilunar valves?

Connect ventricles to major blood vessels

15

Name the 2 semilunar valves

- Right = pulmonary semilunar valve
- Left = aortic semilunar valve

16

___ ___ anchor cusps of AV valves; they connect to ___ ___ of ventricles.

Chordae tendinae

Papillary muscles

17

The right side of the heart brings ___ blood to the ___.

Deoxygenated

Lungs

18

The left side of the heart brings ___ blood to the ___.

Oxygenated

Rest of the body

19

What is the flow of blood here?

SVC and IVC > ___

RIght atrium

20

What is the flow of blood here?

Right atrium > ___

Tricuspid AV valve

21

What is the flow of blood here?

Tricuspid AV valve > ___

Right ventricle

22

What is the flow of blood here?

Right ventricle > ___

Pulmonary SL valve

23

What is the flow of blood here?

Pulmonary SL valve > ___

Pulmonary trunk/arteries

24

What is the flow of blood here?

Pulmonary trunk/arteries > ___

Lungs

25

What is the flow of blood here?

Lungs > ___

Pulmonary veins

26

What is the flow of blood here?

Pulmonary veins > ___

Left atrium

27

What is the flow of blood here?

Left atrium > ___

Bicuspid AV valve

28

What is the flow of blood here?

Bicuspid AV valve > ___

Left ventricle

29

What is the flow of blood here?

Left ventricle > ___

Aortic SL valve

30

What is the flow of blood here?

Aortic SL valve > ___

Aorta

31

What is the flow of blood here?

Aorta > ___

Rest of body

32

What is the complete flow of blood, up to the lungs? (First half of da flo)

1. SVC and IVC
2. Right atrium
3. Tricuspid AV valve
4. Right ventricle
5. Pulmonary SL valve
6. Pulmonary trunk/arteries
7. Lungs

33

What is the complete flow of blood, from lungs up to the rest of the body? (Second half of da flo)

7. Lungs
8. Pulmonary veins
9. Left atrium
10. Biscuspid AV valve
11. Left ventricle
12. Aortic SL valve
13. Aorta
14. Rest of body

34

What is the complete flow of blood, up to the rest of the body? (All of da flo)

1. SVC and IVC
2. Right atrium
3. Tricuspid AV valve
4. Right ventricle
5. Pulmonary SL valve
6. Pulmonary trunk/arteries
7. Lungs
8. Pulmonary veins
9. Left atrium
10. Biscuspid AV valve
11. Left ventricle
12. Aortic SL valve
13. Aorta
14. Rest of body

35

What are 3 major things are involved in cardiac circulation?

Which ones carry oxygenated/deoxygenated blood?

1. Coronary arteries
- oxygenated blood
2. Great cardiac vein
- deoxygenated blood
3. Coronary sinus
- deoxygenated blood

36

Collects deoxygenated blood from the heart itself

Coronary sinus

37

General characteristics of cardiac muscle

- 1 or 2 nuclei per cell
- Striated
- Branched
- Intercalated discs
- Involuntary

38

Because cardiac muscle cells are electrically connected by gap junctions, the entire myocardium behaves like a single unit, a ___ ___.

Functional syncytium

39

What does the intrinsic conduction system consist of?

The intrinsic conduction system consists of:

specialized noncontractile myocardial tissue

40

What are the 2 main things that the intrinsic conduction system ensures?

The intrinsic conduction system ensures that:

1. Heart muscle depolarizes in an orderly and sequential manner (from atria to ventricles)
2. The heart beats as a coordinated unit

41

Does not need neural impulses (creates its own rhythm)

Autorhythmic

42

What is the normal sinus rhythm?

70 bpm

43

What is the location and function?

Sinoatrial (SA) node

- below SVC in right atrium
- "pacemaker"
- spreads impulse throughout right/left atria

44

What is the location and function?

Atrioventricular (AV) node

- in lower atrial septum at the junction of the atria and ventricles
- delays impulse (about 0.1 sec) to allow atria to fully contract

45

What is the location and function?

AV bundle (Bundle of His)

- at top of interventricular septum
- connects the atria to the ventricles

46

What is the location and function?

Bundle branches

- down the interventricular septum
- conduct the impulses through the interventricular septum

47

What is the location and function?

Purkinje fibers (subendocardial conducting network)

- up the sides of each ventricle
- causes ventricles to contract
- depolarizes the contractile cells of both ventricles

48

5 components of the intrinsic conduction system

1. Sinoatrial (SA) node
2. Atrioventricular (AV) node
3. AV bundle (Bundle of His)
4. Bundle branches
5. Purkinje fibers (subendocardial conducting network)

49

2 uses of the electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

1. To measure electrical changes in the heart
# depolarization and repolarization
2. To diagnose heart problems
# arrhythmias
# heart blocks, etc.

50

The graphic recording of the electrical changes occurring during the cardiac cycle

Electrocardiogram

51

4 things to note in electrocardiography

1. P wave
2. QRS complex
3. T wave
4. P-QRS interval

52

What happens here?

P wave

- SA node fires to cause atrial depolarization
# Atrial systole follows

53

What happens here?

QRS complex

- Atrial repolarization (hidden)
- Ventricular depolarization
# Ventricular systole follows

54

What happens here?

T wave

Ventricular repolarization

55

What happens here?

P-QRS interval

AV node, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers fire

56

In order, what are the electrical changes occurring during the cardiac cycle?

1. Depolarization (-) to (+)
2. Contraction
3. Repolarization (+) to (-)
4. Relaxation

57

Listening to heart sounds with a stethoscope

Auscultation

58

What is lub?

Sound of AV valves closing

59

What is dup?

Sound of SL valves closing

60

Describe murmurs.

- murmurs: abnormal heart sounds
- "swishing" or "screeching" sounds

61

The Ductus Arteriosus normally closes at birth and is thereafter referred to as the ___ ___.

Ligamentum Arteriosum

62

The Foramen Ovale normally closes at birth and is thereafter referred to as the ___ ___.

Fossa Ovalis

63

The ___ ___ normally closes at birth and is thereafter referred to as the Ligamentum Arteriosum.

Ductus Arteriosus

64

The ___ ___ normally closes at birth and is thereafter referred to as the Fossa Ovalis

Foramen Ovale

65

Which ventricle is thicker and by how much?

The left ventricle is about 4 times thicker than the right ventricle.