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Flashcards in Lab 4 Deck (12):
1

Ventilation Assistance

Assisting or controlling the patient’s breathing by the use of a machine-driven or hand-operated device
• Assisted ventilation
• Controlled ventilation

2

Assisted ventilation

anesthetist delivers a higher volume of air to a patient with spontaneous respiration

3

Controlled ventilation

anesthetist delivers all of the air required by a patient who is not breathing on its own

4

Indications for controlled ventilation

• Thoracic surgery
• Trauma patients (flail chest, diaphragmatic hernia)
• Apnea
• Deep planes of anesthesia
• Use of neuromuscular blocking agents (e.g. succinylcholine, atracurium)

5

Important rules to follow during controlled ventilation

• Breathing system pressure should not exceed 20 cm of water in small animals, 30 cm of water in large animals
• Each ventilation should last only 1-1 ½ seconds
• Expiratory time should be at least twice as long as inspiratory time
• Respiratory rate typically 6-12 breaths per minute
• Monitor ventilation using pulse oximeter or capnograph (end-tidal CO2 monitor)
• Wean patient off the ventilator at end of procedure

6

Manual ventilation

• Lungs are filled with air when anesthetist squeezes the rebreathing bag in a breathing system

7

Mechanical ventilation

• Lungs are filled with air from an apparatus called a ventilator
o Ventilator applies pressure to air to force it into the lungs (i.e. replaces rebreathing bag in breathing system)

8

All ventilators...

All ventilators have bellows that regulate the volume of air infused into the patient’s lungs—volume should approximate tidal volume (15 ml/kg)

9

Types of ventilators

• Pressure-cycled
• Time-cycled
• Volume-cycled

10

Pressure-cycled

infuses air into the lungs until a preset breathing system pressure is reached

11

Time-cycled

infuses air into the lungs for a set period of time

12

Volume-cycled

infuses a preset volume of air into the lungs