Lab 4 - Cardiovascular System Anatomy: Blood Vessels Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab 4 - Cardiovascular System Anatomy: Blood Vessels Deck (60):
1

The 3 tunics of all blood vessels

1. Tunica interna
2. Tunica media
3. Tunica externa

2

Describe the tunica interna

- Endothelial layer that lines the lumen of the vessel
- Also known as tunica intima

3

Describe the tunica media

- Smooth muscle and elastin
- Middle-most layer
- Usually the thickest layer
- Thicker in arteries than in veins

4

Describe the tunica externa

- Areolar and dense irregular CT
- Protective outer-most layer
- Thicker in veins
- Also known as tunica adventitia

5

Which tunic layer lines the lumen of the blood vessel?

Tunica interna

6

Which tunic layer is thicker in arteries than in veins?

Tunica media

7

Which tunic layer is thicker in veins than in arteries?

Tunica externa

8

Which tunic layer is composed primarily of smooth muscle and elastin?

Tunica media

9

Which tunic layer is composed of areolar and dense irregular CT?

Tunica externa

10

Carries blood away from the heart

Artery

11

Why do arteries have a much thicker tunica media than veins?

Arteries need to expand due to high pressure from the heart.

12

Carries blood to the heart

Vein

13

What helps veins carry blood to the heart?

Skeletal muscles help to pump blood back to the heart.

14

Veins have ___ to prevent backflow.

Valves

15

What is the general blood vessel pathway to and from the heart

1. Heart
2. Artery
3. Arteriole
4. Capillary
5. Venule
6. Vein

16

What is the function of pulmonary circulation?

Brings blood from the heart to the lungs for gas exchange and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart for transport to body tissues

17

Between what 2 parts of the lungs does gas exchange occur to make oxygenated blood?

Between:
1. Lung capillaries
2. Lung alveoli

18

What 2 types of blood vessels are responsible for the exchange of blood between the heart and the lungs?

1. Pulmonary veins
2. Pulmonary arteries

19

Describe pulmonary veins

- Shown in red
- Oxygen-rich
- Bring blood TO THE HEART from the lungs

20

Describe pulmonary arteries

- Shown in blue
- Oxygen-poor
- Bring blood AWAY FROM THE HEART to the lungs

21

What color are the pulmonary veins on diagrams? Why?

The pulmonary veins are shown in red because they are oxygen-rich.

22

What color are the pulmonary arteries on diagrams? Why?

The pulmonary arteries are shown in blue because they are oxygen-poor.

23

Before birth, the fetal lungs are ___; all oxygen and nutrients are received via the ___.

1. Nonfunctional
2. Placenta

24

After birth, the lungs begin to do gas exchange and the fetal cardiac vessels adapt:

The ___ ___ becomes the ___ ___.
The ___ ___ becomes the ___ ___.

The DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS becomes the LIGAMENTUM ARTERIOSUM.

The FORAMEN OVALE becomes the FOSSA OVALIS.

25

What is the function of the ductus arteriosus?

Connects the aorta and pulmonary trunk in the fetus

26

What is the function of the foramen ovale?

Connects the right and left atria in the fetus

27

After birth, what does the ductus arteriosus become?

Ligamentum arteriosum

28

After birth, what does the foramen ovale become?

Fossa ovalis

29

What is the fetal precursor to the ligamentum arteriosum?

Ductus arteriosus

30

What is the fetal precursor to the fossa ovalis?

Foramen ovale

31

What 2 types of blood vessels are responsible for the exchange of blood between the fetus and the placenta?

1. Umbilical vein
2. Umbilical arteries

32

Describe the umbilical vein

- Shown in red
- Oxygen-rich
- Brings blood FROM THE PLACENTA to the fetus

33

Describe the umbilical arteries

- Shown in pink
- Low oxygen
- Brings blood TO THE PLACENTA from the fetus

34

What color is the umbilical vein on diagrams? Why?

The umbilical vein is shown in red because it is oxygen-rich.

35

What color are the umbilical arteries on diagrams? Why?

The umbilical arteries are shown in pink because they have low oxygen levels.

36

What is meant by a "portal" when discussing things like hepatic portal circulation?

A "portal" is a term used to describe an alternate route of blood flow.

General examples:
Vein --> Vein
Venule --> Venule
Capillary bed --> Capillary bed

37

What happens in the body before hepatic portal circulation?

After food is digested,

1. Nutrient-rich blood leaves:
# digestive viscera
# spleen
# pancreas
2. The blood then travels to the liver for further:
# storage
# processing
# detoxification

38

What are the 5 main veins involved in hepatic portal circulation?

1. Hepatic portal vein
2. Gastric veins
3. Splenic vein
4. Inferior mesenteric vein
5. Superior mesenteric vein

39

Why is arterial supply of the brain important?

The brain must receive a constant flow of blood; otherwise, brain damage or death may result.

40

Describe the Circle of Willis

Circle of Willis: an arterial anastomosis at the base of the brain surrounding the pituitary gland and the optic chiasma

-Layman's terms: blood vessels bringing blood to the brain

Aka: Cerebral arterial circle

41

What structures are involved in the Circle of Willis?

1. Anterior and posterior communicating arteries***
2. Anterior and posterior cerebral arteries
3. Basilar artery
4. Middle cerebral artery

42

Pressure surge in an artery that is caused by heart contractions

Pulse

43

Normal pulse rate

70-76 bpm

44

With what fingers does one take one's pulse?

Index and middle fingers (not the thumb)

45

Pressure of blood exerted on blood vessel walls (usually measured in an artery)

Blood pressure

46

In what artery is blood pressure usually measured?

Brachial artery

47

BP is composed of what 2 pressures?

1. Systolic
2. Diastolic

48

Pressure of arteries when heart ventricles contract

Systolic pressure

49

Pressure of arteries when heart ventricles relax

Diastolic pressure

50

Normal BP

120/80 mm Hg

51

With what tool is BP measured?

Sphygmomanometer

52

For what sounds does one listen using a sphygmomanometer?

Korotkoff sounds

53

Explain the Korotkoff sounds

Listen for tapping sounds (systolic pressure), followed by cessation of sound (diastolic pressure)

54

Korotkoff sounds:

What do the tapping sounds indicate?

Systolic pressure

55

Korotkoff sounds:

What does the cessation of sounds indicate?

Diastolic pressure

56

Which blood vessel(s)?

Pulse is most often taken here

1. Carotid Artery
2. Radial Artery

57

Which blood vessel(s)?

Blood pressure is most often taken here

Brachial Artery

58

Which blood vessel(s)?

This is often removed during bypass surgery (CABG)

Great Saphenous Vein

59

Which blood vessel(s)?

Concerning venapuncture, blood is most often drawn from here

Median Cubital Vein

60

What are all the superficial pulse points?

1. Superficial temporal artery
2. Facial artery
3. Common carotid artery
4. Brachial artery
5. Radial artery
6. Femoral artery
7. Popliteal artery
8. Posterior tibial artery
9. Dorsalis pedis artery