Flashcards in Lab 4: Metabolism Deck (23):
What is theoretical basis of indirect calorimetry?
Is the catabolism of carbohydrates (CHO), fat, and protein by aerobic processes leads to heat production, ATP re-synthesis, and CO2 and H2O production
What is a calorie?
Is a unit of energy
What does calorie equal?
=the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celsius
How can caloric expenditure be determined?
By measuring the volume of oxygen consumed (VO2)
What is caloric expenditure?
Is the amount of energy that the body uses in a period of time
How can index of substrate (carbohydrate or fat) oxidation be calculated?
By measuring both VO2 and the volume of Carbon dioxide produced VCO2
What is indirect calorimetry?
Is a technique in which caloric expenditure and substrate utilization can be determined by measuring the volume of oxygen consumed and the volume of carbon dioxide produced
The index is called _________ or __________ and is calculated by the ratio of VCO2 to VO2
Other respiratory exchange ratio (RER) or respiratory quotient (RQ)
What is the theoretical basis of determining carbohydrate and fat oxidation based on?
The amount of O2 consumed to completely oxidize a molecule of glucose or fatty acid is proportional to the amount of carbon in that fuel in the amount of CO2 produced
How do you find RER?
In the resting rate of RER, it is expected to be around _______, which means that both fat and CHO are oxidized.
Substrate utilization in the resting state and during exercise depends on
The influence by the availability of CHO and fat
Substrate utilization during exercise depends largely on the ________ and __________
Duration and intensity of exercise performed
During _______, the demand for ATP is __________relative to the resting state
What must happen in order to meet the increasing demand of ATP?
ATP must be synthesized by by the different energy systems.
Moderate to high intensities of exercise result in __________________ and ______________________ because the oxidation of glucose is faster than the oxidation of fatty acids.
Increased rate of glucose oxidation and increase in RER
What does REE stand for and what is it?
Resting energy expenditure
The amount of energy, usually expressed in kcal, required for a 24 hour period by the body during resting conditions.
What is REE closely related too?
Basal metabolic rate
REE typically comprises __________of our total daily calorie expenditure and can be estimated by numerous published formulas
How many published energy expenditure formulas deal with various conditions such as disease states, age, presence of obesity and other additional factors
How is REE useful measure?
In weight control programs
Acute care hospital settings-provide information of the patients caloric needs
What happens to a patient if the caloric intake is in adequate?
It can had detrimental effects on clinical outcomes of patients' such as reduced respiratory muscle strength, increased risk of infection, poor wound healing, and impaired normal body functions