Lab 5 - Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab 5 - Blood Deck (37):
1

Blood is a type of ___ tissue because it has a ___ and derives from ___.

Blood is a type of CONNECTIVE tissue because it has a MATRIX and derives from MESENCHYME.

2

What is the matrix of blood?

Plasma

3

What is the average blood volume for males?

5 - 6 liters

4

What is the average blood volume for females?

4 - 5 liters

5

Why do males naturally have more blood volume than females?

Males have more muscle mass and testosterone levels, both of which contribute to higher blood volume levels.

6

What is the composition of blood?

- Plasma 55%
- Formed Elements 45%

7

What is the constitution of blood plasma?

- Water 90%
- The other 10%:
# Electrolytes
# Plasma proteins
- Albumin
- Fibrinogen
- Globulins
# Nutrients
# Wastes
# O2
# CO2
# Hormones, etc.

8

What are the formed elements in blood?

1. Erythrocytes
2. Leukocytes
3. Thrombocytes

9

Describe:

Erythrocytes

- Red blood cells
- Biconcave
- Anucleated
- Transports O2 and CO2

10

What are the 2 classes of leukocytes?

1. Granulocytes
2. Agranulocytes

11

List the granulocytes

1. Neutrophils
2. Eosinophils
3. Basophils

12

List the agranulocytes

1. Lymphocytes
2. Monocytes

13

Describe:

Neutrophils

- Stains purple
- Multi-lobed nucleus
- Phagocytic to bacteria

14

Describe:

Eosinophils

- Stains red
- Bi-lobed nucleus
- Kills parasitic worm infections
- Lessens allergic reactions by releasing antihistamines

15

Describe:

Basophils

- Stains blue-ish purple
- Bi-lobed nucleus (S-shaped)
- Increases allergic response by releasing histamine
- Contains heparin (an anticoagulant)

16

Describe:

Lymphocytes

- Stains purple
- Large, round nucleus compared to the cell's small size
- Involved in immunity
- T-Lymphocytes in the thymus

17

Describe:

Monocytes

- Stains purple
- Kidney-shaped nucleus
- Phagocytic
- Develop into macrophages in tissues

18

Leukocytes are naturally clear. What makes them visible?

Wright's stain

19

What are the components of Wright's stain?

1. Acidic stain (Eosin)
# Stains red
2. Basic stain
# Stains blue

20

What are the leukocytes in order of abundance?

Neutrophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Eosinophils
Basophils

21

Describe:

Thrombocytes

- Platelets
- Cell fragments
- Small, purple dots
- Function in blood clotting

22

Hematocrit

Percentage of RBCs in a sample of whole blood

23

The average hematocrit for males is ___.

47%

24

The average hematocrit for females is ___.

42%

25

Hematocrit levels increase/decrease due to ___ or ___.

1. Environment
2. Disease

26

Anemia

Below normal hematocrit, indicating oxygen deficiency

27

What are 4 types of anemia?

1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia
2. Aplastic Anemia
3. Pernicious Anemia
4. Sickle-Cell Anemia

28

Describe:

Iron-Deficiency Anemia

- Low iron levels lead to a low Hb production, which then leads to low O2 levels
- On a slide, iron-deficient blood will look pale
# Iron provides pigmentation

29

Describe:

Aplastic Anemia

- Low RBC production by bone marrow
- Caused by exposure to toxicity, radiation, etc.

30

Describe:

Pernicious Anemia

- Low Hb/RBC production due to Vitamin B12 deficiency
- Often seen in elderly and vegetarians

31

Describe:

Sickle-Cell Anemia

- Misshapen Hb and RBC due to genetics
- Defense against malaria

32

Polycythemia

- Above normal hematocrit
- Too many RBCs, so blood is thicker and moves more slowly
- Usually due to:
# High altitudes
# Exercise
# Bone marrow tumor

33

Heparin

- Chemical that prevents blood clotting
- Used with blood analysis

34

Hemoglobin

- RBC protein containing:
# 4 globin groups
# 4 heme groups
# 4 iron atoms attached to the heme groups
- The 4 iron atoms bind to 4 oxygen molecules

35

What is the range for normal Hb levels?

12 - 18 g/mL

36

Blood typing

Used to determine which types could be donated for a blood transfusion

37

What happens if the wrong blood type is used in a blood transfusion?

It results in agglutination (clumping) of RBCs