Flashcards in Lab 7 - Respiratory System Deck (62):
Fills alveoli with fresh atmospheric air.
Air is taken into the lungs.
Removes stale air that has reduced oxygen and increased carbon dioxide.
Air passes out of the lungs.
Define quiet breathing - which muscles are used?
occurs at rest and does not require the cognitive thought of the individual.
During quiet breathing, the diaphragm and external intercostals must contract.
Define forced breathing- which muscles are used
mode of breathing that can occur during exercise or actions that require the active manipulation of breathing, such as singing.
During forced breathing, inspiration and expiration both occur due to muscle contractions. In addition to the contraction of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, other accessory muscles must also contract.
Define tidal volume
Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions.
Define inspiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inspiration
Define expiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume expiration.
Define vital capacity
Maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiratory effort
Define minute ventilation
the volume of gas inhaled (inhaled minute volume) or exhaled (exhaled minute volume) from a person's lungs per minute.
Define forced vital capacity
The amount of gas expelled when the subject takes the deepest possible breath and then exhales forcefully and rapidly.
Define forced expiratory volume
Same testing procedure as forced vital capacity but it specifically looks at the percentage of the vital capacity that is exhaled during specific time intervals during the first second.
Define residual volume
Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced expiration.
Define inspiratory capacity
Maximum amount of air that can be inspired after a normal tidal volume expiration: IC = TV + ERV
Define functional reserve capacity
Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration
Define total lung capacity
Maximum amount of air contained in lungs after a maximum inspiratory effort
What muscles are used during inspiration?
diaphragm , external intercostals, scalene muscles, sternocleidomastoid muscles, trapezius muscles
What muscles are used during expiration?
internal intercostals, abdominal muscles
Describe the pathway air takes in order to reach the terminal bronchioles.
Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinus, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs, Bronchi, bronchioles
The microscopic sacs where gas exchange takes place are known as
____ is exchanged for _____ waste from the bloodstream.
oxygen , carbon dioxide
CO2 diffuses from the ____ into the alveoli and is expelled during exhalation.
Asthma is a chronic disorder characterized by ______ and _____ of the airways.
increased airway resistance , excessive excretion of mucus
What is COPD caused by?
Smoking and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
What are the two types of COPD?
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema
What makes it difficult to breathe in bronchitis?
Swelling of the bronchi
Define respiratory system
To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide.
Pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of respiratory gases, internal respiration.
Define pulmonary ventilation
Tidelike movement of air into and out of the lungs that allows the gases to be continuously changed and refreshed.
Define external respiration
Gas exchange between the blood and the air-filled chambers of the lungs.
Define transport of respiratory gases
Transport of respiratory gases between the lungs and tissue cells of the body using blood as the transport vehicle.
Define internal respiration
Exchange of gases between systemic blood and tissue cells.
Function of nostrils
Warm air upon inhalation
Function of nasal cavity
warm, moisturize, and filter air entering the body before it reaches the lungs.
Function of nasal septum
provide structural support for the nose
Function of nasal conchae
The function of the conchae is to increase the surface area of the nasal cavity
Function of paranasal sinuses
Decreasing the relative weight of the front of the skull, and especially the bones of the face. Increasing resonance of the voice.
Function of hard palate
Feeding and speech
Function of soft palate
responsible for closing off the nasal passages during the act of swallowing, and also for closing off the airway.
During sneezing, it protects the nasal passage by
diverting a portion of the excreted substance to the mouth.
Function of pharynx
Passageway for fluid, food, and air
Function of nasopharynx
space above the soft palate at the back of the nose and connects the nose to the mouth, which allows a person to breathe through the nose.
Function of posterior nasal aperture
provide an exit for the air into the nasopharynx.
Disfunction of the eustachian tube - which connects the nasopharynx to the middle ear
provides for the passage of air and swallowed food.
Tonsils provide protection against pathogens.
provides for passage of air and swallowed food.
Larynx - thyroid cartilage
forms the framework of the larynx.
air passageway; prevents food from entering the lower respiratory tract. responsible for voice production.
Larynx - cricoid cartilage
attaches the larynx to the trachea via the cricotracheal ligament
Larynx - epiglottis
forms a lid over the larynx during swallowing
Larynx - vestibular folds
Protect the vocal folds and help to close the glottis when we swallow
Larynx - vocal cords
vibrate with expired air for sound production
Larynx - arytenoid cartilage
anchor the vocal folds (true vocal chords)
Larynx - glottis
plays a role in the Valsalva maneuver
vital function of providing air flow to and from the lungs for respiration.
Main bronchi function
represents the airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs
only site of entrance or exit of structures associated with the lungs.
the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs
Respiratory tree function
distribute air to the lung
Alveolar ducts function
connect the respiratory bronchioles to alveolar sacs
tiny sacs within our lungs that allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to move between the lungs and bloodstream.
Respiratory membrane function
Where gas exchange occurs
Respiratory zone structures
respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli.