Lab 7 - Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology Lab II > Lab 7 - Respiratory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lab 7 - Respiratory System Deck (62):
1

Define inspiration

Fills alveoli with fresh atmospheric air.

Air is taken into the lungs.

2

Define expiration

Removes stale air that has reduced oxygen and increased carbon dioxide.

Air passes out of the lungs.

3

Define quiet breathing - which muscles are used?

occurs at rest and does not require the cognitive thought of the individual.

During quiet breathing, the diaphragm and external intercostals must contract.

4

Define forced breathing- which muscles are used


mode of breathing that can occur during exercise or actions that require the active manipulation of breathing, such as singing.

During forced breathing, inspiration and expiration both occur due to muscle contractions. In addition to the contraction of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, other accessory muscles must also contract.

5

Define tidal volume

Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions.

6

Define inspiratory reserve volume

Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inspiration

7

Define expiratory reserve volume

Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume expiration.

8

Define vital capacity

Maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiratory effort

9

Define minute ventilation

the volume of gas inhaled (inhaled minute volume) or exhaled (exhaled minute volume) from a person's lungs per minute.

10

Define forced vital capacity

The amount of gas expelled when the subject takes the deepest possible breath and then exhales forcefully and rapidly.

11

Define forced expiratory volume

Same testing procedure as forced vital capacity but it specifically looks at the percentage of the vital capacity that is exhaled during specific time intervals during the first second.

12

Define residual volume

Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced expiration.

13

Define inspiratory capacity

Maximum amount of air that can be inspired after a normal tidal volume expiration: IC = TV + ERV

14

Define functional reserve capacity

Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration

15

Define total lung capacity

Maximum amount of air contained in lungs after a maximum inspiratory effort

16

What muscles are used during inspiration?

diaphragm , external intercostals, scalene muscles, sternocleidomastoid muscles, trapezius muscles

17

What muscles are used during expiration?

internal intercostals, abdominal muscles

18

Describe the pathway air takes in order to reach the terminal bronchioles.

Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinus, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs, Bronchi, bronchioles

19

The microscopic sacs where gas exchange takes place are known as

Alveoli

20

____ is exchanged for _____ waste from the bloodstream.

oxygen , carbon dioxide

21

CO2 diffuses from the ____ into the alveoli and is expelled during exhalation.

Blood

22

Asthma is a chronic disorder characterized by ______ and _____ of the airways.

increased airway resistance , excessive excretion of mucus

23

What is COPD caused by?

Smoking and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

24

What are the two types of COPD?

Chronic bronchitis and emphysema

25

What makes it difficult to breathe in bronchitis?

Swelling of the bronchi

26

Define respiratory system

To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide.

27

Define respiration

Pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of respiratory gases, internal respiration.

28

Define pulmonary ventilation

Tidelike movement of air into and out of the lungs that allows the gases to be continuously changed and refreshed.

29

Define external respiration

Gas exchange between the blood and the air-filled chambers of the lungs.

30

Define transport of respiratory gases

Transport of respiratory gases between the lungs and tissue cells of the body using blood as the transport vehicle.

31

Define internal respiration

Exchange of gases between systemic blood and tissue cells.

32

Function of nostrils

Warm air upon inhalation

33

Function of nasal cavity


warm, moisturize, and filter air entering the body before it reaches the lungs.

34

Function of nasal septum

provide structural support for the nose

35

Function of nasal conchae

The function of the conchae is to increase the surface area of the nasal cavity

36

Function of paranasal sinuses

Decreasing the relative weight of the front of the skull, and especially the bones of the face. Increasing resonance of the voice.

37

Function of hard palate

Feeding and speech

38

Function of soft palate

responsible for closing off the nasal passages during the act of swallowing, and also for closing off the airway.

During sneezing, it protects the nasal passage by
diverting a portion of the excreted substance to the mouth.

39

Function of pharynx


Passageway for fluid, food, and air

40

Function of nasopharynx

space above the soft palate at the back of the nose and connects the nose to the mouth, which allows a person to breathe through the nose.

41

Function of posterior nasal aperture


provide an exit for the air into the nasopharynx.

42

Otitis media

Disfunction of the eustachian tube - which connects the nasopharynx to the middle ear

43

Oropharynx function

provides for the passage of air and swallowed food.

Tonsils provide protection against pathogens.

44

Laryngyopharynx function


provides for passage of air and swallowed food.

45

Larynx - thyroid cartilage


forms the framework of the larynx.

46

Larynx function


air passageway; prevents food from entering the lower respiratory tract. responsible for voice production.

47

Larynx - cricoid cartilage


attaches the larynx to the trachea via the cricotracheal ligament

48

Larynx - epiglottis

forms a lid over the larynx during swallowing

49

Larynx - vestibular folds


Protect the vocal folds and help to close the glottis when we swallow

50

Larynx - vocal cords


vibrate with expired air for sound production

51

Larynx - arytenoid cartilage


anchor the vocal folds (true vocal chords)

52

Larynx - glottis


plays a role in the Valsalva maneuver

53

Trachea function


vital function of providing air flow to and from the lungs for respiration.

54

Main bronchi function


represents the airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs

55

Hilum function


only site of entrance or exit of structures associated with the lungs.

56

Bronchioles function


the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs

57

Respiratory tree function


distribute air to the lung

58

Alveolar ducts function


connect the respiratory bronchioles to alveolar sacs

59

Alveoli function


tiny sacs within our lungs that allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to move between the lungs and bloodstream.

60

Respiratory membrane function

Where gas exchange occurs

61

Respiratory zone structures


respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli.

62

Conducting zone structures

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles