Lab Exam 3 - Joints and Synovial Joint Movements (Exercise 11) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab Exam 3 - Joints and Synovial Joint Movements (Exercise 11) Deck (83):
1

Define Term: Synarthoses

Immoveable

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Define Term: Amphiarthroses

Slightly Moveable

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Define Term: Diarthrosis

Freely moving (represents about 90% of joints in the body)

4

What is the name for immature cartilage cells?

Chondroblasts

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What is the name for mature cartilage cells?

Chondrocytes

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Note that in all three types of cartilage, the cells are alone of on groups of two or three and surrounded by a matrix made up of fibers and proteoglycans. What is the difference between the three types of cartilage?

The difference between the three types of cartilage is the type of fibers and relative amount of proteoglycan.

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What are the three types of cartilage?

Elastic Cartilage, Fibrocartilage, and Hyaline Cartilage

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The difference between the three types of cartilage is the type of fibers and relative amount of proteoglycan. How is Hyaline cartilage difference from Elastic and Fibrocartilage?

Hyaline cartilage contians type II collagen and a large amount of affrefating cartilage proteoglycan called aggrecan.

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The difference between the three types of cartilage is the type of fibers and relative amount of proteoglycan. How is Elastic cartilage difference from Hyaline and Fibrocartilage?

Elastic cartilage contains type II collagen and proteoglycan, like Hyaline cartilage, but additionally contains elastic fibers

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The difference between the three types of cartilage is the type of fibers and relative amount of proteoglycan. How is Fibrocartilage difference from Hyaline and Elastic cartilage?

Fibrocartilage contains less proteoglycan and type I collagen in place of type II collagen.

11

What is a synovial joint?

Synovial joints permit significant movement of two bones relative to each other. Freedom of movement results from the presence of a fluid-filled space between the two bones, called the synovial cavity. The synovial cavity is filled with a lubricating fluid called synovial fluid. Most joints in the body are synovial joints. Some examples include the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee.

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Know the following term: Articular bone

The two articularting at the synovial joint (though probably just any bone that articulates with another bone)

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Know the following term: Articular capsule

Structure that encloses the synovial joint and synovial cavity; has two layers; the fibrous capsule and synovial membrane

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Know the following term: Articular Cartilage

Hyaline cartilage covering the ends of the bones in the synovial cavity

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Know the following term: Fibrous Capsule

outer dense fibrous connective tissue layer of the articular capsule that is continuous with the periosteum of the bone; also forms ligaments when fibrous bundles are parallel

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Know the following term: synovial cavity

small space between the two articulating bones

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Know the following term: Synovial fluid

secreted by the synovial membrane ; lubricates the articular cartilages to reduce friction

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Know the following term: Synovial membrane

inner layer of the articular capsule; composed of areolar connective tissue containing elastic fibers and adipocytes

19

What are the most common major injuries to the knee due to sporting activities?

Meniscal tear or a tear to the anterior cruciate ligament.

20

Define Term: Gliding

Gliding: Nearly flat bone surfaces slide or glide over each other

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Typical Synovial Joint and Dissection: Define 1

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1. Articular Bone

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Typical Synovial Joint and Dissection: Define 2

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2. Synovial Fluid

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Typical Synovial Joint and Dissection: Define 3

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3. Synovial Cavity

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Typical Synovial Joint and Dissection: Define 4

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4. Articular Cartilage

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Typical Synovial Joint and Dissection: Define 5

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5. Fibrous Capsule

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Typical Synovial Joint and Dissection: Define 6

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6. Synovial Membrane

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Typical Synovial Joint and Dissection: Define 7

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7. Articular Capsule

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The Knee Joint: Define 1

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1. Articular Cartilage of Femur

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The Knee Joint: Define 2

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2. Lateral Collateral (Fibular) Ligament

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The Knee Joint: Define 3

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3. Lateral Meniscus

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The Knee Joint: Define 4

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4. Posterior Cruciate Ligament

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The Knee Joint: Define 5

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5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament

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The Knee Joint: Define 6

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6. Medial Meniscus

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The Knee Joint: Define 7

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7. Medial (Tibial) Collateral Ligament

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What is this sample?

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Hyaline Cartilage

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Hyaline Cartilage: Define 1

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1. Extracellular Matrix

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Hyaline Cartilage: Define 2

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2. Lacuna

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Hyaline Cartilage: Define 3

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3. Nucleus of Chondrocyte

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What is this sample?

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Elastic Cartilage

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Elastic Cartilage: Define 1

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1. Lacuna

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Elastic Cartilage: Define 2

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2. Nucleus of Chondrocyte

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Elastic Cartilage: Define 3

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3. Elastic fibers

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What is this sample?

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Fibrocartilage

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Fibrocartilage: Define 1

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1. Collagen Fibers

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Fibrocartilage: Define 2

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2. Lacuna

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Fibrocartilage: Define 3

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3. Chondrocytes

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Where can you find hyaline cartilage?

- Ends of long bones (articular cartilage)

- Trachea and bronchi

- Anterior ends of ribs (costal cartilage)

- Embryonic skeleton

48

Where can you find elastic cartilage?

- External Ear

- Auditory tube

- Epiglottis of Larynx

49

Where can you find fibrocartilage?

- Intervertebral discs

- Cartilage pads in knee

- Pubic symphysis

50

Structural Classification of Joints: Define 1

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1. Synovial and Diarthrosis

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Structural Classification of Joints: Define 2

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2. Synovial and Diarthrosis

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Structural Classification of Joints: Define 3

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3. Cartilaginous and amphiarthrosis

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Structural Classification of Joints: Define 4

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4. Synovial and Diarthrosis

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Structural Classification of Joints: Define 5

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5. Fibrous and Amphiarthrosis

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Structural Classification of Joints: Define 6

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6. Fibrous and Synarthrosis

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Structural Classification of Joints: Define 7

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7. Cartilaginous and amphiarthrosis

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Structural Classification of Joints: Define 8

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8. Cartilaginous and amphiarthrosis

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Structural Classification of Joints: Define 9

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9. Synovial and Diarthrosis

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Structural Classification of Joints: Define 10

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10. Synovial and Diarthrosis

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What is this sample?

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Adipose Tissue

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Adipose Tissue: Define 1

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1. Nucleus of adipocyte

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Adipose Tissue: Define 2

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2. Lipid storage area

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What is this sample?

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Dense Regular Connective Tissue

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Dense Regular Connective Tissue: Define 1

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1. Fibroblast

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Dense Regular Connective Tissue: Define 2

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2. Collagen fiber bundle

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Structural Classification of Joints: Define 11

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11. Fibrous and Synarthrosis

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Define Term: Flexion

Decrease in the angle between bones of a joint; usually occurs on a sagittal plane

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Define Term: Extension

Extension: Increase in the angle between bones of a joint; restore to anatomical position

69

Define Term: Hyperextension

Hyperextension: Excessive extension movement beyond normal anatomical position

70

Define Term: Abduction

Abduction: Move appendage away from the midline

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Define Term: Adduction

Adduction: Move appendage toward midline

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Define Term: Circumduction

Circumduction: Move a distal part of an appendage in a circle

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Define Term: Rotation

Rotation: Turn on a pivot with a circle

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Define Term: Elevation

Elevation: Upward movement raising body part vertically

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Define Term: Depression

Depression: Downward movement lowering body part vertically

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Define Term: Protraction

Protraction: Move a body part forward or anterior on a horizontal plane

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Define Term: Retraction

Retraction: Move a body part backward or posterior

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Define Term: Supination

Supination: Turn palm of the hand to face forward, or, if arm is outstretched, to turn palm upward

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Define Term: Pronation

Pronation: Turn palm of the hand to face backward, or, if arm is outstretched, turn palm downward

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Define Term: Inversion

Turn the sole of the foot inward

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Define Term: Eversion

Eversion: Turn the sole of the foot outward

82

Define Term: Dorsiflexion

Dorsiflexion: Point your toes upward; stand on your heels

83

Define Term: Plantar Flexion

Plantar Flexion: Point your toes downward, raise your heels