Lab Exam 3 - Skeletal Muscles and Their Actions (Exercise 14) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab Exam 3 - Skeletal Muscles and Their Actions (Exercise 14) Deck (168):
1

Define Term: Origin

Point of attachment of the muscle tendon to the stationary bone (the bone which does not move with muscle contraction)

2

Define Term: Insertion

Point of attachment of the muscle tendon to the bone that moves with muscle contraction

3

Define Term: Action

The body movement that results from contraction of the muscle. During contraction, the insertion always moves toward the origin.

4

Define Term: Tendon

Tendons attach muscle to bone. They are extensions of the connective tissues surrounding the muscles, usually in long, parallel bundles. If the tendon is broad and flat, it is called an aponeurosis.

5

Understand the meaning of the folllowing terms with respect to muscle action: Flexor

A muscle that when contracted acts to bend a joint or limb in the body.

6

Understand the meaning of the folllowing terms with respect to muscle action: Extensor

A muscle that extends or straightens a limb or body part.

7

Understand the meaning of the folllowing terms with respect to muscle action: Abductor

A muscle that draws a body part, such as a finger, arm, or toe, away from the midline of the body or of an extremity.

8

Understand the meaning of the folllowing terms with respect to muscle action: Adductor

A muscle that draws a body part, such as a finger, arm, or toe, inward toward the median axis of the body or of an extremity.

9

Understand the meaning of the folllowing terms with respect to muscle action: Levator

A muscle that raises a bodily part.

10

Understand the meaning of the folllowing terms with respect to muscle action: Depressor

Any of various muscles that serve to draw down a part of the body.

11

Understand the meaning of the folllowing terms with respect to muscle action: Supinator

A muscle, especially in the forearm, that effects or assists supination.

12

Understand the meaning of the folllowing terms with respect to muscle action: Pronator

A muscle that effects or assists in pronation.

13

Understand the meaning of the folllowing terms with respect to muscle action: Sphincter

a ringlike muscle which closes a natural orifice or passage.

14

Understand the meaning of the folllowing terms with respect to muscle action: Tensor

A muscle that stretches or tightens a body part.

15

Understand the meaning of the folllowing terms with respect to muscle action: Rotator

A muscle that serves to rotate a part of the body.

16

Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles of the Facial Expression: Frontalis

Origin: Epicranial Aponeurosis Insertion: Skin superior to superior to supraorbital margin Action: Raises eyebrows & wrinkles forehead

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Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles of the Facial Expression: Occipitalis

Origin: Occipital bone and mastoid process of the temporal bone Insertion: Epicranial Aponeurosis Action: Pulls scalp posteriorly

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18

Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles of the Facial Expression: Orbicularis oculi

Origin: Medial wall of orbit Insertion: Skin around margin of orbit Action: Closes Eye

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19

Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles of the Facial Expression: Zygomaticus Minor

Origin: Zygomatic Bone Insertion: Upper Lip Action: Raises upper lip, exposes upper teeth

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20

Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles of the Facial Expression: Zygomaticus Major

Origin: Zygomatic Bone Insertion: Skin and angle of mouth and orbicularis oris Action: Raises corner of mouth (smiling)

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Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles of the Facial Expression: Orbicularis Oris

Origin: muscle fibers surrounding mouth Insertion: Skin at the corner of mouth Action: Closes and purses lips

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22

Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles of the Facial Expression: Platysma

Origin: Fascia covering deltoid and pectoralis major Insertion: Mandible, Muscles around angle of mouth, and skin of lower face Action: Tenses neck skin, depresses mandible (pouting)

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23

Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles of the Mastication: Temporalis

Origin: Temporal Bone Insertion: Coronoid process and ramus of mandible Action: Elevates and retracts mandible

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Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles of the Mastication: Masseter

Origin: Maxilla and zygomatic arch Insertion: Ramus and angle of mandible Action: Elevates and retracts mandible

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25

Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles that move the Head and Neck: Sternocleidomastoid

Origin: Sternum and clavicle Insertion: Mastoid process of temporal bone Action: Bilateral contraction flexes head. Unilateral contraction laterally flexes head and rotates it to the opposite side

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Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles that move the Head and Neck: Splenius Capitus

Origin: Ligamentum nuchae and spinous proess of vertebrae C7-T12 Insertion: Clavical, Acromion of Scapula, and Spine of Scapula Action: Extends Head and Elevates Scapula

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Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles that move the Head and Neck: Trapezius

Origin: Occipital bone and spines of C7 through T12 Insertion: Clavical and Scapula Action: superior fibers elevate scapulae, middle fibers adduct scapulae, inferior fibers depress scapulae

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Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscle that only moves the scapula: Levator Scapulae

Origin: Vertebrae C1-C5 Insertion: Superior Vertebra and Border of Scapula Action: Elevates Scapula and Rotates it Downward, Stabilizes Scapula

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29

Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 1.

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1. Orbicularis oculi

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Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 2.

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2. Orbicularis oris

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Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 3.

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3. platysma

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32

Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 4.

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4. Frontalis

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33

Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 5.

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5. Zygomaticus minor

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34

Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 6.

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6. Zygomaticus major

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Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 7.

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7. Occipitalis

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Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 8.

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8. Frontalis

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Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 9.

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9. Orbicularis oculi

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38

Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 10.

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10. Zygomaticus major

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39

Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 11.

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11. Buccinator

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40

Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 12.

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12. Orbicularis oris

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41

Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 13.

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13. Masseter

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42

Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 14.

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14. Temporalis

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43

Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 15.

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15. Lateral pterygoid

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Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 16.

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16. Medial pterygoid

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Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 17.

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17. Orbicularis oris

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46

Selected Muscles of the Head. Define 18.

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18. Buccinator

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47

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 1.

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1. Splenius capitis

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48

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 2.

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2. sternocleidomastoid

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49

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 3.

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3. trapezius

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50

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 4.

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4. levator scapulae

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51

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 5.

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5. scalene

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52

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 6.

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6. digastric, anterior belly

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53

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 7.

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7. mylohyoid

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54

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 8.

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8. stylohyoid

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55

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 9.

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9. digastic, posterior belly

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56

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 10.

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10. omohyoid

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57

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 11.

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11. sternocleidomastoid

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58

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 12.

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12. sternohyoid

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59

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 13.

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13. mylohyoid

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60

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 14.

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14. scalenes

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61

Selected muscles of the chin and neck. Define 15.

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15. Levator scapulae

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62

Muscles of the anterior trunk. Define 1.

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1. Deltoid

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63

Muscles of the anterior trunk. Define 2.

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2. Pectoralis Major

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Muscles of the anterior trunk. Define 3.

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3. Pectoralis Minor

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Muscles of the anterior trunk. Define 4.

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4. Serratus anterior

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Muscles of the anterior trunk. Define 5.

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5. External Oblique

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67

Muscles of the anterior trunk. Define 6.

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6. Rectus Abdominis

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68

Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles that move the arm at the shoulder joint: Deltoid

Origins: Anterior Head = clavicle, lateral head = acromion of scapula, posterior head = spine of scapula Insertion: Deltoid Tuberosity of humerus Actions: Anterior head = raises arm anteriorly (flexion of arm at shoulder joint) Lateral Head = abduct arm at shoulder joint Posterior Head = raise arm posteriorly (extension of arm at shoulder joint)

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69

Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles that move the arm at the shoulder joint: Pectoralis Major

Origin: Clavicle, Sternum, and costal cartilages of ribs 2-6 Insertion: Greater Tubercle and Intertubercular groove of humerus Action: Adducts and medially rotates arm at shoulder joint

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70

Name the action: Subscapularis

Action: Medially rotates arm

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71

Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles that move the abdominal wall: Rectus Abdominus

Origin: Superior Aspect of Pubic bones and pubic symphysis Insertion: Xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7 Action: Flexes vertebral column to draw chest anteriorly and inferiorly (as in performing sit-ups)

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72

Name the Action: External Intercostals

raise ribs at inhalation, increasing size of thoracic cavity (muscles used in breathing)

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73

Name the Action: Internal Intercostals

depresses ribs at exhalation, decreasing size of thoracic cavity (muscles used in breathing)

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74

Describe and Name the action: Diaphragm

The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle inside the ventral body cavity. It separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities, with openings in the muscle for esophagus, aorta, and vena cava. Action: contraction of the diaphragm causes it to descend toward the abdomen (the dome flattens), which expands the size of the thoracic cavity resulting in inhalation; relaxation cuases it to resume its dome shape, which decreases the size of the thoracic cavity, resulting in exhalation.

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75

Muscles of the Posterior Trunk. Define 1.

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1. Trapezius

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76

Muscles of the Posterior Trunk. Define 2.

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2. Deltoid

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Muscles of the Posterior Trunk. Define 3.

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3. Latissimus dorsi

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78

Muscles of the Posterior Trunk. Define 4.

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4. Levator Scapulae

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Muscles of the Posterior Trunk. Define 5.

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5. rhomboid minor

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Muscles of the Posterior Trunk. Define 6.

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6. Supraspinatus

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Muscles of the Posterior Trunk. Define 7.

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7. infraspinatus

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Muscles of the Posterior Trunk. Define 8.

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8. teres minor

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83

Muscles of the Posterior Trunk. Define 9.

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9. rhomboid major

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84

Muscles of the Posterior Trunk. Define 10.

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10. teres major

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85

Name the Action: Latissimus Dorsi

Action: Draws arm inferiorly and posteriorly

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86

Muscles of the Arm. Anterior View. Define 1.

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1. Biceps Brachii

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87

Muscles of the Arm. Anterior View. Define 2.

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2. Subscapularis

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Muscles of the Arm. Anterior View. Define 3.

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3. Teres major

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Muscles of the Arm. Anterior View. Define 4.

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4. Brachialis

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Muscles of the Arm. Posterior View. Define 5.

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5. Triceps Brachii, long head

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Muscles of the Arm. Posterior View. Define 6.

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6. Triceps Brachii, lateral head

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Muscles of the Arm. Posterior View. Define 7.

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7. Triceps Brachii, medial head

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93

Name the Action, Origin, and Insertion. Muscles of the Arm: Biceps Brachii

Origin: Long head and short head both originate on scapula. Long Head is lateral to short head. Insertion: Proximal and medial aspect of the radius Action: Flexes the forearm at the elbow

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94

Name the Action. Muscles of the Arm: Brachialis

Action: Flexes the forearm at the elbow

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95

Name the Action, Origin, and Insertion. Muscles of the arm: Triceps Brachii

Origin: Long Head = Inferior to glenoid cavity of scapula Medial Head = Posterior humerus inferior to groove for radial nerve Lateral Head: Posterior surface of lateral humerus, superior to radial groove Insertion: Olecranon of Ulna Action: Extends the forearm at the elbow

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96

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Anterior Superficial View. Define 1.

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1. Pronator Teres

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97

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Anterior Superficial View. Define 2.

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2. Flexor Carpi Radialis

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98

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Anterior Superficial View. Define 3.

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3. Brachioradialis

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99

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Anterior Superficial View. Define 4.

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4. Palmaris Longus

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Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Anterior Superficial View. Define 5.

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5. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

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101

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Anterior Deep View. Define 6.

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6. supinator

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102

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Anterior Deep View. Define 7.

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7. Flexor Digitorum Profundus

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103

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Anterior Deep View. Define 8.

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8. Flexor Pollicis Longus

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Name the Action: Brachioradialis

Flexes the forearm at the elbow

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105

Name the Action: Pronator Quadratus

Prime mover of forearm pronation. Resists separation of radius and ulna when force applied to wrist

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106

Name the Action, Origin, and Insertion. Muscles that move the hand: Flexor Carpi Radialis

Origin: distal and medial aspect of humerus (medial epicondyle of the humerus) Insertion: Metacarpals Action: Flexes the hand anteriorly at the wrist

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107

Name the Action, Origin, and Insertion. Muscles that move the hand: Flexor Digitorum Superficialis

Found Deep to flexor carpi radialis Actions: Flexes wrist Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus Insertion: Middle Phalanges (fingers 2-5)

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108

Name the Action: Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

Action: Flexes wrist. Aids in ulnar flexion of wrist..

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109

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Posterior Superficial View. Define 9.

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9. Extensor carpi radialis longus

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110

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Posterior Superficial View. Define 10.

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10. Flexor carpi ulnaris

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111

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Posterior Superficial View. Define 11.

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11. Extensor carpi radialis brevis

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112

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Posterior Superficial View. Define 12.

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12. extensor carpi ulnaris

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113

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Posterior Superficial View. Define 13.

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13. Extensor digiti minimi

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114

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Posterior Superficial View. Define 14.

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14. Extensor digitorum

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115

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Posterior Superficial View. Define 15.

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15. Supinator

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116

Muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hands. Posterior Superficial View. Define 16.

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16. Extensor pollicis longus

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117

Name the Action: Flexor Digitorum Profundus

Deep to the flexor digitorium superficialis. Action: Flexes wrist. Sole flexor of the distal interphalangeal joints

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118

Name the Action, Origin, and Insertion. Muscles that move the hand: Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

Origin: Distal and Lateral Aspect of Humerus Insertion: Metacarpals Action: Extends the hand posteriorly at the wrist

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119

Name the Action, Origin, and Insertion. Muscles that move the hand: Extensor Digitorum

Origin: Lateral Epicondyle of Humerus Insertion: Phalanges 2-5 Action: Extends wrist. Spreads digits apart.

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120

Name the Action: Extensor Digiti minimi

Action: Extends wrist and all joints of pinky finger

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121

Name the Action: Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

Actions: Extends and fixes wrist in place when fist is clenched.

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122

Name the Action: Abductor pollicus longus

Pollicus = thumb Actions: Abducts thumb in palmar plane. Extends thumb at carpometacarpal joint.

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123

Muscles of the Thigh. Anterior superficial view. Define 1.

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1. Iliacus

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Muscles of the Thigh. Anterior superficial view. Define 2.

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2. Psoas Major

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Muscles of the Thigh. Anterior superficial view. Define 3.

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3. Tensor Fasciae Latae

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Muscles of the Thigh. Anterior superficial view. Define 4.

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4. Rectus Femoris

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Muscles of the Thigh. Anterior superficial view. Define 5.

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5. Vastus Intermedius

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Muscles of the Thigh. Anterior superficial view. Define 6.

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6. Vastus Lateralis

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Muscles of the Thigh. Anterior superficial view. Define 7.

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7. Pectineus

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Muscles of the Thigh. Anterior superficial view. Define 8.

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8. Adductor Longus

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Muscles of the Thigh. Anterior superficial view. Define 9.

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9. Gracilis

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Muscles of the Thigh. Anterior superficial view. Define 10.

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10. Sartorius

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Muscles of the Thigh. Anterior superficial view. Define 11.

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11. Vastus Medialis

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Muscles of the Thigh. Anterior Deep view. Define 12.

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12. Adductor Brevis

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Muscles of the Thigh. Anterior Deep view. Define 13.

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13. Gracilis

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136

Muscles of the Thigh. Anterior Deep view. Define 14.

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14. Adductor Magnus

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Muscles of the Thigh. Define 15.

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15. Gluteus Medius

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138

Muscles of the Thigh. Define 16.

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16. Piriform

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139

Muscles of the Thigh. Define 17.

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17. Biceps Femoris

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Muscles of the Thigh. Define 18.

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18. Gluteus Maximus

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141

Muscles of the Thigh. Define 19.

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19. Semitendinosus

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142

Muscles of the Thigh. Define 20.

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20. Semimembranosus

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143

Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles of the Thigh: Quadriceps

Quadriceps: Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius. Origin: Lateral aspect of femur (except for rectus femoris, orgin = anterior aspect of ilium) Insertion: Patella (via tendon of quadriceps femoris) Action: extends the lef at the knee (acting alone, the rectus femoris flexes the thigh anteriorly at the hip)

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144

Name the Action: Sartorius

flexes the leg at the knee, flexion of the thigh at the hip, and lateral rotation of the lef (as in swuatting with knees pointed laterally)

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145

Name the action: Gracilis

Adducts and medially rotates thigh

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146

Name the action: Gluteus maximus

Extends the thigh posteriorly at the hip, lateral rotation of thigh

147

Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles of the Thigh: Hamstrings

Hamstrings = biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimemranosus (semimembranosus is deep to semitendinosus, and biceps femoris is lateral to semimembranosus and semitendinosus) Origin: Ischial Tuberosity Insertion: Proximal End of the Tibia Action: Flexes the lef at the knee and extends thigh posteriorly at the hip

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148

Muscles of the Leg, Ankle, and Foot. Define 1.

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1. Fibularis Longus

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149

Muscles of the Leg, Ankle, and Foot. Define 2.

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2. Tibialis Anterior

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Muscles of the Leg, Ankle, and Foot. Define 3.

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3. Extensor Digitorum Longus

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Muscles of the Leg, Ankle, and Foot. Define 4.

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4. Fibularis Brevis

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Muscles of the Leg, Ankle, and Foot. Define 5.

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5. Gastrocnemius

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Muscles of the Leg, Ankle, and Foot. Define 6.

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6. Soleus

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Muscles of the Leg, Ankle, and Foot. Define 7.

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7. Fibularis Longus

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Muscles of the Leg, Ankle, and Foot. Define 8.

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8. Extensor Digitorum Longus

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Muscles of the Leg, Ankle, and Foot. Define 9.

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9. Tibialis Anterior

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Muscles of the Leg, Ankle, and Foot. Define 10.

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10. Gastrocnemius

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Muscles of the Leg, Ankle, and Foot. Define 11.

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11. Soleus

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Muscles of the Leg, Ankle, and Foot. Define 12.

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12. Flexor Hallucis Longus

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Muscles of the Leg, Ankle, and Foot. Define 13.

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13. Flexor Digitorum Longus

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161

Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles of the Lower Leg and Foot: Tibialis Anterior

Origins: lateral condyle, body of tibia Insertions: 1st metatarsal, medial cuneiform Actions: Dorsiflexes and inverts foot. Resists backward tipping of body. Helps support arch of foot.

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Name the action: Extensor Hallucis Longus

Halucis = big toe Action: Extends big toe. Dorsiflexes foot.

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163

Name the Action: Extensor digitorum longus

Extends toes. Dorsiflexes foot. Tautens plantar aponeurosis.

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164

Name the Action: Fibularis (peroneus) longus

Plantar flexes and everts foot

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Name the Origin, Insertion, and Action. Muscles of the Lower Leg and Foot: Gastrocnemius

Origin: Medial and lateral condyle of femur Insertion: Calcaneus (cia the calcanel or Achilles tendon) Action: Extends foot at ankle (plantar flexion, as in pointing the toes)

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166

Name the Action and location: Soleus

Location: Deep to the gastrocnemius Action: Plantar Flexes foot

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167

Name the action: Pronator Teres

Pronator teres pronates the forearm, turning the hand posteriorly. If the elbow is flexed to a right angle, then pronator teres will turn the hand so that the palm faces inferiorly. It is assisted in this action by pronator quadratus.

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Name the action: Supinator

supinator brings the hand into the supinated position. In contrast to the biceps brachii, it is able to do this in all positions of elbow flexion and extension. [1]

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