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Flashcards in lab midterm Deck (64):
1

species

a group of individuals with shared physical and genetic characteristics that can potentially interbreed with one another in the wild.

2

population

a group of individual organisms of the same species living in a particular area.

3

community

group of all species living and interacting in an area at a particular time.

4

ecosystem

community of different species interacting with one another, along with the chemical and physical factors making up its nonliving environment

5

abiotic factors

non-living

6

biotic factors

living

7

biodiversity

The complete range of species, biological communities, and their ecosystem interactions and genetic variation within species.

8

growth rate

(births-deaths)+(immigration-emigration)

9

exponential growth

Unrestricted
No carrying capacity
ie: humans

10

logistic growth

Restricted
Environment has carrying capacity
ie: deer in Yellowstone park

11

carrying capacity

The maximum population of a particular species that a given habitat can support over a given period of time.

12

transect

a straight line or narrow section through a natural feature, along which observations are made or measurements are taken.

13

quadrat

a plot used in ecological sampling that is used as a representative sample of the community.

14

what is DBH

Diameter at breast heigh

15

why do you measure DBH

age of tree

16

how is DBH measured

DBH tape

17

why do we measure tree height

get an idea of the species

18

latitude

East-west running: NS coordinates

19

contour intervals

the vertical distance or difference in elevation between contour lines

20

whats the state soil series

Cecil soil Series
(sand transitions to clay west)

21

what info can you get from soil series

Group of soils w similar profiles

22

magnetic declination

the angle of adjustment between true north and magnetic north. You must adjust for this in order to read the map correctly.

23

magnetic north

compass points

24

true north

actually north

25

what is a topographic math

A two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional surface (elevation).

26

what info can you get from a topographic math

-elevation
-surface type
-natural and made made structures
-locations on the globe

27

what are rules for contour lines

Contour lines cannot cross or divide.
Closely spaced contours represent cliffs
Widely spaced contours represent gentle slopes (e.g. rolling hills).
Closed contours represent hills or basins.
“V’s” formed by contour lines point upstream.

28

how do you now which way a river is flowing on a topographic math

V's formed by contour lines go upstream

29

calculate frelief and gradient

Relief: Difference in elevation between two points (Height A-Height B)
Gradient: a measure of steepness of the slope
(Height A-Height B)/Horizontal distance a-b

30

which coordinates do latitude lines give you

NS

31

what coordinates do longitudinal lines give you

WE

32

what does GPS stand for

global positioning system

33

how does GPS work (process)

1, Radio signals sent from satellites to receiver.

2. GPS receiver calculates distance by time-stamp of radio signals.

34

how many satellites are needed for. GPs to give an exact location

4

35

how much water is freshwater

3% (1% accessible)

36

where is the freshwater on earth

ground water, ice caps and glaciers

37

what is the difference between a river basin and a watershed

River Basin: Land drained by a river and its tributaries

Basin are separated topographically by a geographical barrier such as a ridge or mountain, which is known as a water divide.
Watershed: area of land draining into a stream, lake, or wetland
There are many smaller watersheds within a river basin.
UNCW sits on the edge of two watersheds

38

difference between point source and non-point source pollution

Point Source Pollution: single identifiable
source of pollution. Source doesn’t move.
Non-point Source Pollution: large or dispersed discharge of pollutants in the environment

39

what are different pollutants that can be carried into waterways by storm water

1. dog waste
2. roadway runoff
3.

40

how does each of the pollutants we discussed in the enviroscape demonstrations affect water quality

Make it gross/somewhat unusable

41

why do we look at soil profiles

decide what to build

42

Bedrock

– is not part of the soil, rather it is unweathered parent material; abbreviated by ‘R’

43

coordinate system

-Tool for describing a geographic location.
-Grids or lines that are used to describe a position on Earth or on a map.
-Coordinate values can be numbers or letters that describe a position within a given coordinate system.

44

two types of coordinate stystems

1. Geographic Coordinate System (Latitude/Longitude)

2. Projected Coordinate System (Universal Transverse Mercator)

45

geographical coordinate system

Latitude and longitude
Location reference system for spatial features on Earth’s surface.

46

quadrangle

a section of the Earth’s surface that is bounded by lines of latitude and longitude.

47

Projected coordinate system

-Transforms the Earth’s spherical surface to a 2-D plane.
-Measurements are made to the east (eastings) and north (northings) of each grid line.
-“Battleship” method

48

orienteering

using a compass and map to find your way to landmarks

49

why do we study macroinvertebrates

Indicator species
What kinds of macroinvertebrates found tells us about the water quality

50

nautical chart

A two-dimensional representation of three-dimensional body of water (depth)

51

remote sensing

Use of remote devices such as air craft, space craft, satellite, or ships to collect information about an object or area.

52

what is fecal coliform

Bacteria associated with fecal waste

53

where does fecal coliform come from and why is it harmful

CAUSES:
overflow of domestic sewage
non-point human or animal waste
CAFOs (confined animal feeding operations)
rusted sewer lines, people not picking up after dogs, wildlife, etc
HARMFUL:
Danger of pathogens, disease producing bacteria, and viruses also present

54

how does a dead zone form

Caused by hypoxic waters – little or no oxygen
Zone size impacted by agricultural practices and wet seasons
-no marine life in this zone

55

what does BMP stand for

Best management practices

56

samples of BMP and their purposes/limitations

1. rain gardens (bioretention)
2. Retention Pond
3. Constructed Wetlands
4. Grassy Swale
5. Permeable and Pervious 6. Pavement
7. Roadside Buffers
8. Native Plantings

57

remote sensing

Use of remote devices such as air craft, space craft, satellite, or ships to collect information about an object or area.

58

what did we test waters for

-Ph
-DO
-turbitidy
-salinity
-conductivity

59

ph

>7 – basic
7 - neutral
<7 – acidic

60

turbidity

Measure of water cloudiness or murkiness – caused by small particles suspended in water

61

salinity

the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water.

62

conductivity

measure of the water’s ability to conduct electricity, which provides a measure of what is dissolved in water.

63

how is conductivity related to temp

higher temp=higher conductivity

64

Chlorophyll A

Indicator of algal blooms

Algal blooms can be toxic to fish and animals (low DO, toxins)
-Result from excess nutrients usually from fertilizers (nitrogen and phosphorus) also from animal waste – CAFOs, agriculture