Lab Midterm Flashcards Preview

CLP400 > Lab Midterm > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lab Midterm Deck (25):
1

Absence of WBCs =

Infection

2

Name 3 types of infection

Parasitic
Bacterial
Mycotic/Fungal

3

Presence of WBCs =

Inflammation

4

Name 5 subcategories of inflammation

Purulent
Pyogranulomatous
Granulomatous
Eosinophilic
Lymphocytic

5

What are the 3 steps to classification of inflammation?

1. identify the sample as inflammatory
2. classify your sample into one of the five forms of inflammation
3. sub-classify appropriately

6

What are the characteristics of purulent inflammation? (4 points)

-neutrophilic (greater than 70% neuts)
-acute
-non-neuts are macrophages and other inflammatory cells
-many causes but bacteria is common cause

7

What are the characteristics of granulomatous inflammation? (4 points)

-macrophagic (greater than 50% macrophages)
-also referred to as chronic
-can be sudden during very specific processes such as tissue necrosis (ex. from mycobacterium sp.)
-made up of macrophages and/or mononuclear cells

8

What are the characteristics of pyogranulomatous inflammation? (4 points)

-mix of neutrophils (less than 70%) and macrophages (15-50%)
-chronic-active
-may see GIANT cells and ephitheliod cells
-causes are same as granulomatous inflammation

9

What are the characteristics of eosinophilic inflammation? (4 points)

-10-20% eosinophils
-rest will be neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, and mast cells
-often due to allergic or parasitic reactions
-look for mast cell tumours

10

What are the characteristics of a lymphocytic inflammation? (4 points)

-uncommon
-also called plasmacytic (will often see plasma cells as well)
-from chronic, local irritation (ex. peritonitis or vaccine reaction)
-see a lot of mature lymphocytes, look for mitotic changes in case of lymphoma!

11

Which categories of inflammation have to be sub-classified?

purulent and pyogranulomatous

12

Name 3 types of degeneration

Karolysis (dissolution of a nucleus - stretches and thins out)
Pyknosis (condensation of chromatin - curled into a small ball to die)
Karyorrhexis (nuclei membrane ruptures - split apart into various fragments)

13

What are the two days to sub-classify purulent and pyogranulomatous inflammation?

1. denegerate vs non-degenerate (in reference to the neutrophil nuclei)
2. septic or non-septic (septic = microorganisms present ie. parasitic, septic, or mycotic)

14

What cells will you likely see in proestrus?

RBCs
parabasals
intermediates
superficials
neutrophils (early proestrus)

15

What cells will you see in estrus?

>90% superficials or anuclears or combo of both
no neutrophils
+/- RBCs
+/- bacteria

16

What cells will you see in diestrus?

50% superficials
50% parabasals and/or intermediates
can look like proestrus

17

What cells will you see in anestrus?

parabasals
intermediates
(should not see blood, neutrophils, or bacteria)

18

Name 5 ways to collect a sample:

1. scraping
2. swab
3. impression
4. FNA (fine needle aspirate)
5. FNB (fine needle biopsy)

19

When would you use an impression technique?

tissue collected during surgery
exudative superficial lesions
ulcerative superficial lesions

20

When would you use a scrape technique?

for flat, dry, superficial lesions

21

When would you use a swab technique?

When all other options are unavailable

22

What is the difference between aspirate and non-aspirate?

Aspirate = negative pressure is applied
Non-aspirate = no negative pressure, cells move themselves into the syringe through regular flow

23

SLIDE PREP
What is the squash technique best for?

Solid or mixed sample (solid with fluid), ideal when clumps present

24

SLIDE PREP
What is the wedge technique best used for?

Thin samples, can get accumulation of cells

25

SLIDE PREP
What is the starfish technique best used for?

mixed consistencies (ex. chunky puss samples)