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Flashcards in Lab objectives for Oral 1 Deck (74):
1

What is anatomical position and why is it used?

It is where the individual stands upright with feet parallel and flat on the floor. The head is level, and the eyes look forward the observer. The arms are at either side of the body with the palms facing forward and the thumbs pointing away from the body. By visualizing the body in anatomic position, all observers have a common point of reference when describing and discussing its regions

2

Anterior (Ventral) means

Toward front

3

Medial means

Toward midline

4

Superior means

Toward head

5

Inferior means

Away from the head

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Lateral means

Toward the side

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Posterior (dorsal) means

Toward rear

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Proximal means

Closer to center than reference point

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Distal means

Farther away than reference point

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Superficial (external) means

Toward surface

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Deep (internal) means

Away from surface

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Section implies

An actual cut or slice to expose the internal anatomy

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Plane implies

An imaginary flat surface passing through the body

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What are the 3 major anatomic planes through the body?

1) Coronal plane
2) Transverse plane
3) Midsagittal plane

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The coronal plane

Also called frontal plane, a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts

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The transverse plane

Also called cross-sectional plane or horizontal plane, cuts perpendicularly along the axis of the body or organ. The body or organ is separated into both superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts, and the relationship of neighboring organs at a particular level is revealed

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The midsagittal plane

Or median plane, extends through the body or organ vertically and divides the structure into right and left halves

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Divides into left and right

Sagittal or midsagittal (medial)

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Divides front and back

Coronal (frontal)

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Divides into top and bottom

Transverse (horizontal)

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The proximal/distal or only used on what

Appendages (arms,legs)

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You can't say something is distal without giving

A point of reference

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What muscle separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity?

Diaphragm

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The space between lungs is

Mediastinum

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A subdivision of the thoracic cavity is

Mediastinum

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Most organs have how many membranes around them?

2

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Organ systems are

Groups of organs working together in a common/general function

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What are the 4 tissues?

1) Epithelial tissue
2) Connective tissue
3) Muscle tissue
4) Nervous tissue

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Epithelial tissue

Covers surfaces; lines insides of organs and body cavities

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Connective tissue

Protects, binds together, and supports organs

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Muscle tissue

Facilitates movement of skeleton or organ walls

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Nervous tissue

Neurons:control activities, process information
Glial cells:Support and protect neurons

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Abdominopelvic quadrants are

The four areas of the abdominopelvic cavity formed by passing one vertical and one horizontal plane through the umbilicus (navel)

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Abdominopelvic regions are

The nine areas in the abdominopelvic cavity formed by two transverse planes and two sagittal planes

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Auscultation is

A diagnostic method that involves listening to the sounds produced by various body structures

36

Homeostasis is

State of equilibrium, or constant internal environment in the body

37

Palpation is

Using the hands to detect organs, masses, or infiltration of a body part during a physical examination

38

Percussion is

When you tap on the body and look for residence of an organ, you can tell about internal injuries

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Reflex response is

When you tap on certain parts of the body looking for certain responses. Used to test for nerve or muscle damage

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The taxonomy of humans

1) Kingdom-Animalia
2) Phylum-Chordata
3) Class-Mammalia
4) Order- Primates
5) Family-Hominidae
6) Genus-Homo
7) Species-sapiens

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The characteristics of mammals are

Hair at some point in the life cycle and mammary glands

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Levels of organization from smallest to largest

1) Cellular
2) Tissue
3) Organ
4) Organ system
5) Organism

43

What are the types of body cavities

1) Posterior (dorsal) cavity-lined with meninges
*Cranial cavity-encloses the brain
*Vertebral cavity-encloses the spinal cord
2) Anterior (ventral) cavity
*Thoracic cavity-above the diaphragm
*Pleural cavity (lungs)-lined with parietal pleura and visceral pleura
*Pericardial cavity (surrounds the heart)-parietal pericardium and visceral pericardium
*Mediastinum-space the heart occupies
3) Abdominopelvic cavity-below the diaphragm-lined with peritoneum-parietal and visceral
*Abdominal cavity (digest organs)
*Pelvic cavity (urinary and reproductive organs)

44

Chordates have

1) Hollow, dorsal nerve cord
2) Notochord
3) Pharyngeal pouches
4) Post-anal tail

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Cervical

Neck region

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Thorax

Between neck and abs

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Mammory

Breast region

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Sternal

Sternum region

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Vertebral

Spinal column region

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Abdominal

Abdomen

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Pubic

Pubic region

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Lumbar

lower back

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Sacral

Above butt crack

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Gluteal

Butt region

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Brachium

Upper arms

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Cubital

Elbow region

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Antebrachium

Lower arm region

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Manus

Hand

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Thigh

Thigh

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Patellar

Kneecap

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popliteal fossa

Back of knee

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Leg

Lower leg

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Axillary

Arm pit region

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Both the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are lined with what

Serous membranes, which are composed of two layers

65

What lines the internal surface of the body wall

A parietal layer

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What covers the external surface of organs within the cavity

A visceral layer

67

Between the parietal and visceral layers of the serous membrane is a thin

Serous cavity that is actually a potential space

68

The pericardium membrane is

Two layered serous membrane that encloses the heart

69

The pleura membrane is

Two layered serous membrane that lines the lungs

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The peritoneum membrane is

A moist two-layered serous membrane, lines the abdominopelvic cavity

71

The mesentary membrane is

Double layer of peritoneum, that invests the intestines, attaching them to the posterior wall of the abdomen

72

The greater omentum is

Large fold of visceral peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach

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The lesser omentum is

A double layer of peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach and the start of the duodenum

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Function of mesentary is

To hold intestines in place