Lab oral #5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab oral #5 Deck (92):
1

What are the anatomical types of neurons-based upon the number of process attached to cell body

1) Unipolar (Pseudounipolar)
2) Bipolar
3) Multipolar

2

Unipolar (Pseudounipolar) is

Based upon the number of processes attached to cell body

3

Bipolar is

One axon and one dendrite (Special sensory neurons)

4

Multipolar is

One axon and several dendrites (Motor neurons)

5

Functional types of neurons-based upon relationship with the CNS

1) Sensory (Afferent)
2) Motor (Efferent)
3) Interneuron (Associate)

6

Carry impulses into CNS

Sensory (Afferent)

7

Carry impulses away from the CNS

Motor (Efferent)

8

Carry impulses within the CNS

Interneuron (Associate)

9

Name the different neuroglia cells

1) Astrocytes (CNS)
2) Oligodendroctyes (CNS)
3) Microglia (CNS)
4) Ependymal cells (CNS)
5) Neurolemmocyte (PNS)
6) Satellite cells (PNS)

10

Name the 4 types of neuroglia cells that are located in the CNS

1) Astrocytes
2) Oligodendrocytes
3) Microglia
4) Ependymal cells

11

Name the two types of neuroglia cells that are located in the PNS

1) Neurolemmocyte
2) Satellite cells

12

Astrocytes are

Large, branching cells that form the blood-brain barrier

13

Oligodendrocytes are

Cells with few branches that form myelin

14

Microglia are

Tiny cells with complex branches and are phagocytes

15

Ependymal cells are

Ciliated & secrete the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

16

Neurolemmocyte are

Myelin producing

17

Satellite cells are

Isolate and nourish cell bodies in ganglion

18

What are the nerve connective tissue coverings (PNS)

* Epineurium
* Perineurium
* Endoneurium
* Fascicles

19

Connective tissue coverings of CNS

Meninges

20

What are the different Meninges (connective tissue coverings of the CNS) from external to internal

1) Dura mater-tough outer cover
2) Arachnoid membrane- weblike & enclosing the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)
3) Pia mater- delicate inner, vascular membrane that adheres to the CNS

21

The nervous system is divided into two main sections which are the

Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

22

What is in the CNS?

The brain and spinal cord

23

What is in the PNS?

Everything else; all the things outside the brain and spinal cord; the spinal nerves, cranial nerves & the peripheral nerves that go to other parts of the body

24

The two anatomical divisions of the nervous system are?

Central & peripheral nervous system because it has to do with with where those structures are

25

The basic unit that conducts impulses and thus carries messages throughout the body

The neuron

26

A typical neuron is composed of

3 main parts; the cell body, the dendrites, and the axon

27

The dendrites conduct

Impulses towards the cell body

28

The cell body contains most of the cellular parts including

The nucleus and all of the anatomy that is needed to keep the cell alive and functioning

29

The axon carries impulses

Away from the cell body

30

Within the cell body is

The nucleus and the chromatophilic bodies

31

The chromatophilic bodies are

Large numbers of free and attached ribosomes that stain darkly on real neurons

32

The many ribosomes are important in producing

Proteins int he active neuron

33

Neurons are very active and proteins are an important part of

That activity

34

Within the axons are

Neurofibrils

35

Neurofibrils are

Bundles of microtubules that serve to make the axon stronger, it is less likely to break because of the neurofibrils

36

Wrapped around the axon are

Neuroglial cells called neurolemmocytes (Schwann Cells)

37

The whole neurolemmocyte cell is called a

Neurolemmocyte and the outer portion is called the neurilemma

38

The neurilemma contains

The nucleus and most of the cells contents

39

The basic unit that conducts impulses & thus carries messages throughout the body

The neuron

40

Another part of the neurolemmocyte is wrapped tightly around the axon & is called the

Myelin sheath

41

A typical neuron is composed of 3 main parts

1) Cell body
2) Dendrites
3) Axon

42

The neurofibril node is a small gap between the adjacent

Neurolemmocytes

43

Neurofibril nodes are very important in

High speed conduction

44

Most sensory neurons are?

Unipolar

45

These neurons are rare & found only in few places in the body. For example in the retina during sight, during vision

Bipolar

46

This neuron has many processes coming off the cell body

Multipolar

47

Most common types of neurons are the

Multipolar & are usually the motor neurons

48

These conduct impulses but cannot maintain themselves on their own they need helper cells

Neurons

49

These cells are found associated with ganglion & seem to surround the cell bodies & provide insulation & maybe some protection

Satellite cells (PNS)

50

These cells connect blood vessels to neurons; they are the blood-brain barrier; they are the barrier between the blood system & the brain; they connect the blood system to the nervous system of the brain. Important cells, without them there would not be nutrients coming from the blood system into the brain, nor would you have hormone communication to the brain

Astrocytes (CNS)

51

The cells produce & circulate fluid in the central nervous system. This fluid is called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Ependymal cells (CNS)

52

Cerebrospinal fluid is in the

CNS & produced by the ependymal cells

53

These cells move about & remove cellular garbage from the CNS. Sort of like macrophages of the WBCs

Microglial (CNS)

54

These cells produce the myelin sheath of the CNS

Oligodendrocytes

55

These cells produce the myeline sheath of the PNS

Neurolemmocytes

56

A nerve is

A bundle of many axons running parallel to one another, these many axons are covered with connective tissues to hold them together

57

What are the connective tissues for nerves

Neuriums

58

The axon of a nerve is covered with?

Endoneurium

59

The bundles of axons are called?

Fascicles that are surrounded by connective tissue called the perineurium

60

The whole nerve is covered by connective tissue called

Epineurium

61

The connective tissues covering the brain & spinal cord are called

Meninges

62

A serious disease occurs when (meninges) membranes become irritated or infected which is called? If it infects the spinal cord it is called?

Meningitis
spinal cord: Spinal meningitis

63

A tracing is an

Exercises in which you have to follow the pathway that some anatomical process may take

64

What is RSIME?

Receptor
Sensory neuron
Interneuron
Motor neuron
Effector

65

A stimulus in a reflex arc travels

Up the arm through sensory neuron to the spinal cord where there is an interneuron which connects it to the motor neuron and then the motor neuron running back down the arm to the muscle which is the effector organ. The brain is not involved in this

66

Gray matter in the spinal cord is located

On the inside

67

Gray matter in the spinal cord is shaped like

A butterfly with several lobes called horns

68

A nerve that branches off the cord is called a

Spinal nerve

69

A nerve that branches off the posterior is called

Posterior root, its a sensory nerve

70

Motor nerves exit on what side and called what?

Anterior side and called anterior root

71

The cell bodies of all neurons making up the posterior root are

Clustered into a knob called the ganglion

72

What houses all of the cell bodies of the sensory neurons?

The posterior root ganglion

73

Cervical plexus is found

In the neck

74

Brachial plexus goes

To the arm

75

The sacral plexus is in

The lower back region and in the hip region

76

What is a plexus?

A group of nerves in a particular region

77

The sciatic nerve is a

Branch of the lumbar & sacral nerves and is considered part of the sacral plexus (in the flexible area of the upper leg) (lower buttocks)

78

Sitting on hard objects can lead to

Sciatica

79

The cauda equina literally means

Horses tail. It is many branches of the spinal cord in the lumbar region

80

The filum terminale is

Connective tissue that helps anchor the tip of the spinal cord

81

Sympathetic trunk is the

Thin strand between each ganglion

82

Ventricles of the brain are

Cavities within the brain that are filled with a fluid (CSF)

83

CSF has a slow circulation throughout the ventricles aided by

Pressure and cilia on the edges of ependymal cells

84

These cells line the ventricles in the brain

Ependymal cells

85

CSF tracing

Most of CSF is produced by choroid plexus of various ventricles
1) Starts at lateral ventricles
2) Pressure buildup pushed CSF through interventricular foramen
3) Third ventricle (csf added)
4) Moves down through mesencephalic aqueduct
5) Fourth ventricle (csf produced)
*From here the fluid can take different routes
1) Through apertures into the subnarachoid space around the brain
OR
2) Go down through central canal of spinal cord and at cauda equine it enters the subarachnoid space of spinal cord
7) Joins the subarachnoid space around brain
8) Comes together at top of brain
9) Enters arachnoid villi at top of brain and then goes into deral sinuses

86

CSF is produced in the

Choroid plexuses and is absorbed int he anachnoid villi where it enters the blood stream.

87

The flow of CSF does what

Cleanses waste material at the surface of the CNS

88

If blockage occurs along the CSF pathway what happens

It can have serious consequences. The ventricles can build up pressure & enlarge and push out against the brain tissue & damage the brain

89

What happens to babies if blockage occurs along CSF pathway?

The pressure can greatly enlarge the ventricles pushing against the skull which is unossified, and making the skull become very large increasing the head size dramatically. This is known as hydrocephalus or water on the brain. Children will end up with large heads & may result in mental retardation because of the pressure on the brain damaging the brain tissue. Surgical shunts can treat this disease by relieving the pressure

90

Cranial nerves are nerves that exit various regions of the

Brain and go to other parts of the body

91

How many cranial nerves are there?

12 Cranial nerves and they come in pairs so there are 12 pairs of cranial nerves

92

What is the mnemonic:
OOOTTAFVGVAH

Oh Oh Oh To Touch And Feel Very Good Valuables AH (Olfactory, Optic, Oculomotor, Trochlear, Trigeminal, Abducens, Facial, Vestibulocochlear, Glossopharyngeal, Vagus, Accessory, Hypoglossal)