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Flashcards in Lab Practical (Final) Deck (31):
1

How many grams are in one kilogram?

1,000

2

How does a compound microscope work?

Sends light through 2 separate magnifying lenses

3

What tools can you use to measure the field of view under a microscope?

Stage micrometer or clear ruler

4

Why do we use dyes or stains? What kinds of molecules are stains attracted to?

To distinguish our target from other types of cells. Stains are drawn to acidic molecules (like DNA).

5

Does a base bind or release H+?

Bases bind H+

6

What does a good buffer contain?

Weak acid and weak base

7

NaOH is:
a) a base
b) an acid
c) neutral
d) a buffer
e) a pH indicator

a) a base

8

Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are all examples of what?

Macromolecules

9

What macronutrient does Benedict solution test for?
What are the negative/positive colors?

Sugar
Blue --> orange

10

What macronutrient does iodine test for?
What are the negative/positive colors?

Starch
Brown --> yellow

11

What macronutrient does a biuret reagent test for?
What are the negative/positive colors?

Protein
Light blue --> violet

12

What macronutrient does Sudan IV dye test for?
What are the negative/positive colors?

Fats
Clear --> red

13

What is a solvent?

Substance that dissolves other substances, e.g. water

14

What is a solute?

The substance that dissolves into other substances, e.g. sugar

15

Define isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutions

iso = same
hyper = high osmotic concentration = crenate = water exits cells
hypo = lyse = low osmotic concentration = draws water

16

Does a hypertonic solution crenate or lyse cells?

Hypertonic crenates (pushes water out)

17

Does a hypotonic solution crenate or lyse cells?

Hypotonic lyses (draws in water til it explodes)

18

Enzyme + _______ = product

Substrate

19

How does an enzyme speed up a chemical reaction?

It lowers the activation energy

20

[Catechol + oxygen] combine with catecholase to form _______

benzoquinone

21

How do you calibrate the colorimeter?

Insert the reagent blank and press "calibrate" to set to 0.00. Make sure the light shines through the clear sides of the cuvette, not the ridged sides.

22

What is the formula for calculating the rate of a reaction, based on looking at a graph?

Rise
-------
Run

23

Alcoholic fermentation summary equation:
Glucose + 2 ADP + phosphate --->

Carbon dioxide, ethanol, and ATP

24

Is aerobic respiration overall catabolic or anabolic?

Catabolic

25

Is aerobic respiration overall exergonic or endergonic?

Exergonic

26

What gas formed at the top of our fermentation tubes during the yeast fermentation experiment?

Carbon dioxide

27

What are the steps of Polymerase Chain Reaction, and why is it used?

1. Denature
2. Anneal
3. Extend
Repeat 35 times
Used to create many copies of a short fragment of DNA

28

Buffering capacity vs. buffering range

Capacity = the amount of base or acid that you have to add before it will change
Range = what pH the buffer works best at (measured parallel to x axis)

29

What is a hypothesis vs a theory?

Hypothesis is idea being tested, theories have been tested and not falsified.

30

What is a hypothesis vs. a theory?

Hypothesis is idea being tested, theories have been tested and not falsified.

31

Independent vs. dependent variable

Independent - the ONE thing that you change in order to get your outcome
Dependent - the thing that changes because you changed the independent variable - the things you are measuring. Depend variables (multiple) depend on the independent variable.