Lab Pre-Reading Week 2: E.Coli, Evolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab Pre-Reading Week 2: E.Coli, Evolution Deck (30):
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Evolution

change over time

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biological evolution

change in inherited characteristics of a population over time

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two requirements to evolution

characteristics are inherited, characteristics change over time

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falsifiable

may be true or false, need to look at the real world to determine which is the case

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characteristics are inherited through

genes, heritability

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trait

characteristic

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inherited

passed from parent to offspring

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genes

mechanism by which most traits are inherited

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genes composed of

molecules of DNA

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DNA

deoxyribonucleic acide

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genotype

DNA sequence of an organism

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phenotype

physical qualities of an organism - shape, metabolism, behavrior

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what determines phenotype

individual's environment combined with inherited genotype

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alleles

variations of a gene; have differences in DNA sequence, can cause phenotypic differences

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mutation

random, rare change in gene, differences in phenotypic difference arise because of this, create new alleles

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heritability

measure of how much variation can be passed on from parent to offspring; equation is genetic variation / pehnotypic variation

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heritability is 0 means

where none of explain by genetics, can be from of environemnt

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heritability is 1 means

where all is explained by genetics

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four mechanisms by which a heritable trait may change over time in a population of organisms

mutation, gene flow, selection, drift

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mutation

genetic change occurs through mutation, population changes, mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation

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migration aka, what is it

gene flow, when individuals move from one population to another - migration of genes, changes in origianl and targeted population

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selection

when trait affects an organism's reproduction or survival, that trait is subject to selection; through natural selection and artifical selection

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artificial selection

selective breeding or other human actions

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natural selection

selection form environment or other organisms

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fitness

effect of an allele on an orgganism's survival or reproductive success

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fitness equation

number in next gen / number in current gen

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selection has two requirements

heritabile variation in a trait, different phenotypes have different fitness

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genetic drift

genetic change in a population that is not due to novel mutation, gene flow, difference in fitness; drift is random compared to selection such as isolation

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E. coli

small, reproduces rapidly, species of bacteria that normally lives in human intestines, ability to resist an antibacterial compound

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triclosan

antibacterial compound, in soaps, toothapste, underwear, kills bacteria by disrupting cell membranes and inhibiting fatty acid syytnehsis, topical, surface sterilization

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