Lab Pre-Reading Week 3: Genetics Part I - from genotype to phenotype Flashcards Preview

BIOL 1003 > Lab Pre-Reading Week 3: Genetics Part I - from genotype to phenotype > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lab Pre-Reading Week 3: Genetics Part I - from genotype to phenotype Deck (29):
1

genes

determine specific characteristics of organism, made of nucleic acids

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nucleic acid

ibological molecules found within strutures of chromosomes

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chromosomes

genes genes located here

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genotype

total set of genes

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codon

three letter sequence, molecular word that can be trnaslated into amino acid

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amino acid

peptide

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primary structure of a protein

string of amino acids - polypeptide, encoded by a string of DNA bases

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expression

process of going from DNA to protein

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transcribed

DNA transcribed into mRNA to express trait, then mRNA is exported from nucleus to cyctoplasm wehre it's translated into amino acids to make a protein, then --> translated into amino acids to make a protein

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base pairs

30 nuceliuc acids

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ploidy

refers to number of sets of chromosomes it possesses

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humans are

diploid - two sets of chromosomes

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human gameets are

haploid - one set of chormosomes

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homologous

two chromosomes with same genes

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homologous pairs

because humans are diploid

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karyotoype

pic of all chromosomes in a cell, lined up by length

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humans have how many chormosomes

46, orgaized as 23 homologous pairs

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chromosome notation

ploidy x n = total chromosomes

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mutations

variation in gene sequences

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aneuploidy

failure to seaparte chromosomes results in progency cells having more or less than usual umber of chromosoems

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progeny

daughter

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homozygous

two allels of a gene are same

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heterozygous

different genes

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three broad categroies of interaction of allelles

complete dominance, incomplete domincance, co dominance

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complete dominance

one allel completely masks the other; heterozygous and homozygous dominant phenotypes are indistibuguisble

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incomplete domincance

if one allele does not complete mask the other but they instead have an additive effect, effect is typically quantitative

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incomplete dominance typically occurs when a phenotype is

dose dependent

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co dominance

both alleles affect phenotype, have qualitative functions both expressed simultaneously in heterozygotes

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hybrid vigor

offsprigng of two distnatly related individuals have higher fintess than either of parents

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