Lab Pre-Reading Week 4: Genetics Part II Meiosis and Inheritance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab Pre-Reading Week 4: Genetics Part II Meiosis and Inheritance Deck (33):
1

sexual reproduction

process by which DNA from two different organisms is combined to produce offspring

2

recombination of genetic material does what

afford tremendous fitness advantages over asexual reproduction

3

meiosis

halving process, going from diploid to haploid

4

independent assortment

process where one chromosme pair divides (assorts) independent of any other

5

cells with one chromosome pair produces ___

two different types of gametes, 2 prodcues 4, 3 produces 8

6

what does indepndent assortment do

individual can produce more than two kinds of gameetes

7

linkage

decreases diversity of gametes

8

independent assotment

increases diersity of gametes

9

linked

genes on same chromosome - close link stay together

10

how many pairs of autosomal chromosomes are there

22

11

how many pairs of sex choromosomes are there

1

12

x linked

sex linked bc males only have one X and usually traits show up there

13

homologous

same strucutre

14

heterozygous

two alleles different

15

carriers

heterozygotes

16

homozygous

both alleles same

17

Y chromome does not et denoted with an allele

male is either dominant genoytype/phenotype or recessive genotype/phenotype

18

monogenically inherited traits

single gene locus with two allels, either with complete dominance or incomplete dominance

19

complete dominance

resulting in two posible phenotypes

20

incomplete dominance

three pheontpes

21

quantative

continuous traits

22

autosome definition

chromoseomes not considered a sex chromosome or not involved in sex determination

23

x chromosome

two in F, one in M, sex chromosome

24

y chromosome

in males, sex chromosome

25

sex linked / x linked traits

gene found only on x chromosome and not Y- sex linked trait

26

why do we talk about x linked traits but not Y linked ones

because usually genes that control traits are located on sex chromosome and link to gender of individual - usually these genees are on Xchromosome

27

linked genes

genes on same chromosome, decreases possible allel combos in gametes

28

crossing over

process in genetics by which two chromosme of homologous pair exchange equal segment with each other

29

recombinant genoytpe

offspring with genotype different than both parents for traits in Q

30

locus, plural loci

position of gene on chromosome, variant of similar DNA sequece locate at given locus is allele

31

merisitic traits

wide variablilty among inidividuals, but variablilty is incremental not continous

32

polygenic traits

quantitive and meristic traits, model that best explains their inheritance involves multpe gene loci with two or more alleles at each locus

33

most traits are controlled by

multiple genes at multiple loci

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