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Sys. Screen III > Lab Tests & Values > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lab Tests & Values Deck (34):
1

Reference Range or Expected Value

range of values for a given test in a healthy person

2

APACHE

Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation;
system for prognosis development for critically ill patients
based on admission diagnosis, age, health history, physiologic measurement taken during first 24 hrs.;
calculates a predictive death rate or predicted length of stay in the ICU

3

Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)

group of 8 specific tests for electrolyte level, acid-base balance, blood sugar, & kidney status

4

BMP tests

serum concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatine, glucose, & carbon dioxide

5

Reference value - Sodium

Infant = 134-150 mEq/L
Child = 135-145 mEq/L
Adult = 135-145 mEq/L

6

Critical value - Sodium

Adult = < 110

7

Reference value - Potassium

Infant = 3.6-5.8 mEq/L
Child = 3.5-5.5 mEq/L
Adult = 3.5-5.0 mEq/L

8

Critical value - Potassium

Newborn = <2.5 or >8.1 mEq/L
Adult = <2.5 or >6.6 mEq/L
For the PT: <3.2 or >5.1-5.3

9

Reference value - Chloride

Infant = 95-110 mEq/L
Child = 98-105 mEq/L
Adult = 95-105 mEq/L

10

Critical value - Chloride

Adult = <80 or >115 mEq/L

11

Reference value - Calcium

Infant = 10-12 mg/dL
Child = 9-11.5 mg/dL
Adult = 9-11 mg/dL

12

Critical value - Calcium

Adult:
Tetany = <7 mg/dL
Coma = >12 mg/dL

13

Reference value - BUN

Newborn = 3-12 mg/dL
Infant = 5-18 mg/dL
Child = 5-18 mg/dL
Adult = 10-20 mg/dL

14

Reference value - Creatinine

Newborn = 0.3-1.2 mg/dL
Infant = 0.2-0.4 mg/dL
Child = 0.3-0.7 mg/dL
Adolescent = 0.5-1.0 mg/dL
Adult, female = 0.5-1.1 mg/dL
Adult, male = 0.6-1.2 mg/dL

15

Reference value - Magnesium

Infant = 1.4-2.9 mEq/L
Child = 1.6-2.6 mEq/L
Adult = 1.5-2.5 mEq/L

16

Critical value - Magnesium

<0.5 or >3.0 mEq/L

17

Hyponatremia causes
(sodium concentration decrease)

excessive infusion/ingestion of water
excessive production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
disease that cause water retention:
- heart failure
- cirrhosis
- nephrotic syndrome
- SIADH
*will see increased BP, cell volume
*neurons especially vulnerable to cell swelling, leading to neurological dysfunction
*may possibly progress to coma or death

18

Hypernatremia causes
(sodium concentration increase)

excessive water is lost by the body
profuse sweating
decreased antidiuretic hormone due to diabetes insipidus
*may lead to dehydration or edema

19

Abnormal values of potassium may lead to:

dysfunction of excitable cells - nerves, muscle, heart
arrhythmias or cardiac arrest
muscle weakness
irritability
*provides useful info for renal & adrenal disorders
*provides useful info for water & acid-base balance

20

Signs of hypokalemia

mental status changes
dizziness
weakness
myalgia
muscle twitches
N&V
clammy skin
potential respiratory failure due to inspiratory muscle weakness
cardiac arrhythmia

21

Signs of hyperkalemia

numbness
tingling
faccid paralysis
N&V
diarrhea
anorexia

22

Causes of hyperkalemia

excessive potassium replacement
consumption of foods such as fruits
drugs - angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

23

Chloride changes often coupled with:

changes in sodium & water AND
result of hyperventilation or hypoventilation AND
alterations in cellular pH due to:
- CO2 diffuses into cells (RBCs) and generates carbonic acid that is managed by exchanging bicarbonate ions for chloride ions
- as CO2 is added to blood, chloride moves into RBCs and bicarbonate moves out
- process reversed in lungs

24

Calcium serum levels most commonly used to rule in/out:

kidney disease
bone disease
changes in ionized calcium as cause of neuromuscular dysfunction

25

Hypercalcemia may present with:

kidney stones
multiple myeloma (and other cancers)
arrhythmias (?)
decreased neuron firing causing:
- muscle weakness
- fatigability
- decreased muscle tone
- hyporeflexia

26

Hypocalcemia may present with:

numbness around fingers, mouth, and toes
muscle spasms
secondary to respiratory alkalosis resulting from hyperventilation

27

Is magensium included in the BMP?

NO; must be ordered separately

28

Low magnesium results in:

arrhythmias
weakness
muscle spasms
numbness
*reduced in diabetes, use of diuretics, chronic vomiting, diarrhea
*increased by renal failure, hyper-parathyroidism or hypothyroidism

29

BUN & creatinine used to evaluate:

kidney function in individuals with kidney failure
differential diagnosis if kidney disease is suspected
monitor treatment of kidney disease
monitor kidney function while using certain drugs

30

Creatinine

normal waste produce related to creatine phosphate;
mechanism of regenerating
Normal = amount of creatinine in blood is regulated/cleared out by the kidneys, should be constant;
so a rise usually represents a decline in kidney's capacity to excrete wastes (directly correlated)

31

Causes for creatinine elevation in the blood:

glomerulonephritis
pyelonephritis
acute tubular necrosis
obstruction via prostate disease or kidney stones
decreased renal blood flow
excessive release of creatine caused by muscle injury

32

BUN reflects:

the balance of nitrogen added to the blood and excreted by the kidneys

33

BUN increased by:

- GI bleeding b/c breakdown of protein within the blood
- decreased renal function caused by decreased renal blood flow (not decreased glomerular filtration)
- increased protein catabolism (breakdown)
- dietary intake of protein
*decreased by severe primary liver disease

34

Reference value - Blood Glucose

AKA Fasting Plasma Glucose

Neonates = 40-80 mg/dL
Children = 60-100 mg/dL
Adults = 70-100 mg/dL
Adults >60 y/o = 80-110 mg/dL