Ventilation __________ the possibility of flashover and or backdraft.
Ladder companies work to __________ engine company operations. All tasks performed by ladder companies are designed to enhance safety and enable engine companies to perform rescue and fire suppression.
Successful fireground outcomes are preceded by __________, __________ladder operations.
Tasks assigned to ladder company are, but are not limited to (7)…
-gaining and maintaining entry
-overhaul and salvage
-ladder pipe operation
List the critical ventilation factors. (6)
-type/age of building
-actual burn time
-strategy on the fireground
-extent/volume of fire
-location of fire
-smoke conditions (amount, color, pressure, location)
*evaluation of these factors will determine the type and location of ventilation (vertical, mechanical, or natural)
Building Burn Time Strategies Fire and Locates Smoke
Many of the materials currently being used are superior to older construction methods and materials, but _______________.
-not under fire conditions.
Captains responsibilities during vertical ventilation. (5)
-realistic assessment of time needed
-ensure most experienced person be assigned to the task performed
-preplanning and assignments understood at beginning of shift
-capt will supervise all roof activities
-capt must be on roof with crew
A roof report to command should include…(7)
-design/construction of building
-loc of firewalls
-loc of heavy objects
Construction Conditions Effect Firewalls and Objects. Plan for Risk
What four types of buildings are there?
What two types of masonry classifications are there?
Describe the characteristics of unreinforced masonry. (7)
-built prior to 1940’s
-mortar between bricks typically substandard (high amount of lime and little Portland cement)
-no reinforcement in brick
-usually identified as Kings Row (every six courses used to hold bricks together)
-as height increases so must thickness (usually only a few stories)
-poured concrete or arched lintels used to span door/window openings
-roof/floor members usually set into beam pockets in wall or nailed to rim joists bolted thru the wall
What are the hazards of unreinforced masonry?
-walls can collapse easily if roof/floor sections fail (push/pull on walls).
-parapets are common (collapse); weight on cantilevered overhangs/facades
List the characteristics of reinforced masonry.
-usually associated with block construction (CMU Concrete Masonry Units or cinder blocks)
-used late 1940’s; after mid 70’s steel reinforcement used (steel lintels, grout cells, bond beams
Describe the characteristics of frame construction.
-involves building wall, roof, and floor structures from lumber.
-2x4 or 2x6 dimensioned lumber 16” or 24” on center
-exterior is wood siding, stucco, brick or rock veneer.
What are the two types of Frame construction roofs?
Describe the characteristics of Conventional framing (roof)? (7)
-primary method used prior to 1960
-2x4 or 2x6 roof rafters and ridge beams
-king posts used for support
-collar ties running horizontally connecting roof rafters (help prevent lateral spread)
-interior walls running the direction of the ridge are usually load bearing
-ceiling joists not part of roof structure
-sheathing is 1x (30 style contain skip sheathing)
Describe the characteristics of lightweight truss construction.
-designed as a series of triangles, each component dependent on the other for support.-made possible by patent of Gusset plate in 1959
In lightweight trusses the top cord is under _________ and the bottom cord is under __________.
Lightweight trusses are designed to be supported by the _______ only. The bottom cord is ___________. They are designed for up to ______ of clear unsupported span.
What are some of the different styles of lightweight trusses?
use Scissors to cut the Bow Parallel to the Peak
How was sheathing effected over time?
-50’s plywood-80’s OSB (oriented strand board)
What is TJI?
Truss Joist I beam-wood I beam used in floor and roof systems-composed of laminate top and bottom cords usually 2x2 with center OSB webbing-taken the mass out of older solid beam components (equal size TJI superior in strength to solid timber of same size)
What is balloon framing?
-old method of framing multiple stories
-straight runs with no fire stops
-interior floors attached on the outside wall with a rim joist (pancaking of floors do to rim joist sheer)
What is platform framing?
-new method of framing multiple stories-each floor level is built before the next floor is built-fire stops-decreased potential for pancaking
Gable style roof
Hip style roof
Dutch gable style roof
Saw tooth roofs
-generally seen in industrial applications-well constructed using larger lumber or steel trusses-Hazard is neglect and old age
-not common in Phx-similar problem as hip or gable roofs
-attached to the outside of the buildings-not fire stopped (horizontal chimney/rapid extension)
-Older method of spanning large areas without interior columns (larger dimensional construction plated/bolted)
-attic spaces 10-20’ high
-approaching 50-80 years old-Old age is hazard; many retrofitted w/ tie rods along lower cord
-trusses usually 15-25’ o centerunreinforced or underreinforced masonry walls
Describe the failure hazard of bow strung buildings.
Failure of one truss has the potential of failing a extremely large amount of roof area, along with collapsing other trusses in a domino effect. Collapse of the front and rear of the building is probable because of the attachment of the perlins to the front and rear facades.
What are wide span roofs?
Gable style truss roofs presenting all the hazards of the bow strung
-small to medium buildings
What are the hazards of TJI’s?
-can span unsupported 50’ or greater-fail rapidly under fire (domino effect)
What is parallel cord truss?
-Lightweight truss where the top and bottom chord are parallel and connected with gusset plates
-supported on the ends, unsupported in the middle
-commonly found in tilt slab buildings
-allow large spans with few columns
-divided with large glue laminated beams
-fail rapidly under fire conditions bc of lightweight makeup
-wood or metal framed, covered with steel, aluminum, fiberglass panels
-early failure under fire conditions
-skylights incorporated and difficult to detect
Walls are constructed on-site poured, reinforced concrete panels that are lifted into place and welded together with steel plates that are imbedded into the panels.
-Roof and floor typically lightweight
-sometimes roof assemblies composed of pre-stressed concrete I beams (Vertical ventilation ruled out!)
Wood member with a thickness of 1” or 2”
Additional Dead Load
Weight or equipment added during remodeling
Metal conduit used to protect electrical wiring
A force that passes through the center of an object
Decorative wood with a routed bead, usually located in 30s style building
Opening in masonry or frame walls to support roof or floor beams. May be restrained or unrestrained beams.
Horizontal member used to support vertically applied loads across an opening.
Bird Stop/Frieze Board
Usually a wood member closing the gap between trusses on the outside bearing wall.
Course or courses reinforced with rebar and filled with grout, usually ties top of walls and holds ledger bolts and saddles for beams that support roof structures holding top plate in which trusses are nailed.
Beam or column constructed of lumber, forming a hollow “box” spanning openings or columns
Clay masonry unit
Concealed spaces in roof structures usually associated where two roof lines come together
Outside strengthening column in a masonry or concrete building
Hollow area in block
Ceramic component used to secure electrical wiring in 30’s style buildings
Concealed space used to run electric, duct work, and plumbing in a structure
Concrete Masonry Unit/Cinder Block
Horizontal connecting member connecting roof rafters in conventional framing
A vertical supporting member designed to carry a compressive load
A force that pushes together
Refers to a row of brick or block
Small in-roof structures used to deflect water, usually hiding a concealed space
Weight of the building itself and any equipment permanently attached
Attic Vent located on the roof where louvers are vertical to the pitch roof
Drip edge or Shingle mold
Generally 1x material located on top edge of fascia, designed to drip water away from fascia
A load that is applied off center
Enclosed area of overhang creating a concealed space
Usually decorative wood placed horizontally on the ends of trusses on the bottom of the roof line
Fire Cut Beam
Beams with and angle cut away from the supporting wall or column designed to fail early in fire situation to prevent wall collapse usually in unreinforced masonry buildings, but still used today
Formed metal used to seal roof coverings
Gable end vent
Louvered side vent to the attic space on a gable roof house
A truss designed to support itself and trusses from an additional section of the building
Glass modular unit, usually 4” thick, mortared together for window panels, walls and architectural features
Concrete that fills cell block
Metal plate with stamped gang nail used to connect wood in lightweight trusses
End of blocks
Beam spanning the opening in a frame building
Sudden load delivered onto a structure (jumping)
Enclosed Area creating a concealed space usually over cabinets, hallways and bathrooms
Vertical Supporting member running from ridge beam to interior bearing wall in a conventional frame
Brick layed perpendicular to the wall structure in unreinforced masonry used for wall strengthening
Wood member attached to exterior walls for hanging roofs and floors
Reinforcing steel spanning a opening in a masonry building
Any load other than dead load; water, machinery, firefighters
Load bearing walls
Wall carrying a load from another part of the structure in addition to its own weight
Supporting members for rake overhang on a gable roof
Cement sand mixture that bonds brick and block
Dividing panels in a window
Non-load bearing walls
A wall supporting only its own weight
Oriented strand board, wood chips glued and pressed together to form 4x8 sheathing
Party wall/Sound wall
Vertical or horizontal space in wall, usually associated with apartments, used for sound deadening and utility placement
Any member running at a 90 degree angle to the main supporting roof member
Inside strengthening column in a masonry or concrete building usually supporting a roof member
¼” drywall with holes attached to interior walls and ceilings covered with plaster. Used in 50s style buildings
4x8 wood sheet composed of wood ply’s glued and pressed together in alternating grain direction
Post tension concrete
Steel cables in poured concrete capable of being tensioned after the concrete has cured (floors, high rise floors)
Pre tension concrete
Tension applied to reinforcing steel before concrete is poured (bridge I Beams)
Poured, preformed metal panels used as a sub base for lightweight floors and roof systems
Vertical supporting member between ridge and outside bearing wall in conventional framing
Roof overhang running from the fascia to the ridge
Steel reinforcing bar for concrete and masonry, whose system for measuring diameter is based on eighths IE #4 rebar is 4/8 or ½ inch
Concrete with reinforcing steel
Wood member running along ridge that roof rafters tie to in conventional framing
Horizontal member usually nailed to wall members, usually in balloon type framing for attaching roof or floor structures
Insulated electrical wire with outer plastic sheath used since early 50s
Method of measuring roof angle by relation of rise to run
Lightweight truss where the bottom chord pitches up, forming a vaulted interior ceiling
Opening in exterior walls or parapets for removing water off of roofs
Split wood shingle in varying dimension and thickness used for roof covering
Structural component of a roof with horizontal louvers for attic ventilation usually in 30s style buildings
Plywood or OSB placed on frame buildings for lateral support under siding or stucco
A force that tends to break materials by sliding past each other
Flashing on asphalt shingle roofs to limit water damage to wood fascia
Wood member with overlapping ends used in siding and overhangs
Horizontal wood member running on bottom of wall panel
Single hung window
Window where bottom window panel slides vertically
1x4 slats used as a roof sheeting on 30s style buildings. Laid with 4” gap between slats. Used in conjuction with wood shingles
Steel case window
Window where the casing is steel and window panels crank out on hinges
Plywood siding with decorative vertical groves to imitate wood siding
A force that pulls a material apart
Steel rod used to keep walls and trusses from spreading
Truss Joist I beam. Lightweight wood I beam composed of laminated top and bottom cord with webbing of plywood or OSB used for roof rafters and floor joists
*Laminated I beam with webbing
Method of nailing wood together at an angle
Horizontal wood member running on top of wall panel
A load that is applied in a twisting motion
Manufactured component based on a principle of compression and tension composing the roof system
tongue and groove
Wood member with interlocking tongue and groove used for added strength and rigidity also for decoration
Coupling used to connect tie rods to apply tension
Concrete without any reinforcing steel
Center section of block
Wire mesh attached to interior walls and ceilings covered with plaster. Used in 40s-early 50s style buildings
Sawn wood shingle in uniform dimension and thickness used for roof covering
X O Window/Slider window
Window where panel slides horizontally
From the turn of the century to the late _________ the bigger the structure usually meant larger dimensional lumbers and timbers
For firefighters, ________ equals time.
The core of Phoenix is still a core of primarily _______ buildings that spread following Washington and Central Avenues.
Following World War II, with the addition of the ____________ came the 1950s growth.
Arcadia, 27th avenue and Bethany Area, and areas of the East valley are early examples of the urbanization of the Phoenix area during the _________.
Maryvale, Ahwatukee, and North Phoenix are examples of the leapfrog enabled by the advent of the __________.
The ability for field personnel to recognize a certain style of building and understand its features in a _________ time frame must be skill all firefighters are able to master.
Describe the characteristics of the 30s style building.
-built from the turn of the century to the mid to late 40s
-(heat elimination features) high ceilings, raised floors, shed dormers, high-pitched roofs, front and rear porches, root cellars and half and full basements.
-un-reinforced masonry walls, arched lintels and kings rows.
Describe the characteristics of the 50s style building.
-late 40s to late 50s
-concrete block and steel case windows
-creation of ranch style homes
Describe the characteristics of the 60s style building.
-lightweight trusses, plywood and central air increase speed of construction and lower cost
-Frame structures begin to replace block
-architectural diversity begins
Describe the characteristics of the present style building.
-late 70s to present
-larger and of unpredictable layouts
-technology has replaced the mass (OSB & TJI)
-A continual process of evaluation and begins when the call is dispatched
-Not completed until the incident is over
-Pre-planning is one of the most useful tools in accurate size up
Ladder apparatus should be spotted on the fireground so that they will not …
Be moved if the operation shifts from offensive to defensive
_______ and _____ are critical factors in size up.
Building type and age
What are the five categories of building construction?
High occupancy = __________
High life hazard
Window and door layout will give an idea about the ___________.
Interior layout of the building
Bathroom/water heater/plumbing vents will give an idea about ________.
The interior floor plan
If the fire is in the attic, smoke will be coming from the gabled vents and/or roof turbines. Vertical ventilation …..
Is not initially recommended. Use a penetrating nozzle.
_______ and _______ can tell crews what may be burning.
Color and pressure (smoke)
When the fire has self vented or the building is fully involved, …
No vertical ventilation is performed.
Ladder company placement on commercial structure fires is always with __________ in mind. Therefore, ladder apparatus placement on commercial structures will be ________, regardless of strategy (except when aerial rescue is a priority.
-The worst case scenario-defensive
Houses, duplexes, and small single story apartment complexes
Ideally, ladder companies should be placed _______ the fire occupancy (residential)
In front of (engines should pull just past or just short)
Multifunctional in nature, such as multistory apartment complexes, large warehouse buildings, strip shopping centers and large open areas such as lumber yards, recycling centers and storage facilities.
Single apartments-multiple stories tall(position the ladder in a manner that will provide protection to exposures while allowing best and closest access to the roof for ventilation or for rescue activities)
Positioning on a firewall
When positioning on a firewall, it is important to spot the apparatus parallel with the building , preferable with the turntable as closely centered with the firewall as possible.
What is the minimum distance to spot the ladder away from a multi story building to keep it from becoming an exposure?
When spotting an apparatus, consider what is _________ versus what is burning.
-what is left to burn
Large manufacturing and/or storage facility
What is a medium size commercial building?
-100 x 100 or 10,000 square feet (typically single story but 15-30 feet tall)
Where should you spot the ladder on a bowstrung or peaked truss frame building?
Parallel to the building on the long or buttressed side because failure of the building will generally occur on the short side (front or back)
Where should ladders be spotted on tilt slab buildings with panelized roofs?
Outside of the collapse zone 1 ½ times the height of the building and on opposing corners.
What size is a large commercial warehouse?
Football Field size or over 10,000 square feet
Where should ladders be placed on a large commercial warehouse?
-defensively, where you want to stop the fire while keeping in mind that ladder pipe water streams have approximately a 150ft reach
-place in close proximity to a firewall if possible
-second due ladders make a defensive spot on the second most threatened exposure and preferable on opposing corners.
Always place a __________ when mounting the roof, residential or commercial, preferably at different ends or sides of the building.
Secondary means of egress
Where should you spot the ladder on large open areas such as lumbar yards, recycling plants and garbage dumps?
-spot the ladder in a flanking position in relation to the fire and wind direction
-generally, placed to protect the most significant exposure
When conducting rescue operations from elevated places, such as apartment buildings, hotels, etc. priority is given to the __________, not fire suppression activities.
-rescue effort first
How should a ladder be placed when performing an aerial rescue?
In a manner that will attain greatest structural support, such as directly off the back or front of the apparatus.
What are tip loads?
Tip loads are defined as the maximum amount of weight allowable by the manufacturer on the tip of the ladder.
Platform Ladders (New)- 1000 lbs
The less the extension of the ladder and the steeper the angle, the greater the ____________.
Describe the procedure for performing a window rescue.
Place the tip of the ladder above the window first, the lower down. This will keep victims from jumping onto the ladder before it is properly placed. (Always place the ladder in an unsupported position)
Comprised of lightweight metal roof panels over conventional or lightweight construction, laid on traditional sheathing-can be cut using a chain or circular saw
Metal Clad buildings
-Lightweight construction and fail early in a fire
-Metal clad buildings should not be vertically vented.
-Have skylights of thin Plexiglas of fiberglass that may be same color as tin
Spray foam roof
-Usually found on flat or low pitched roofs and on commercial or residential occupancies
-foam can be over 2 in thick and is sprayed over plywood/OSB panels, lightweight concrete, and lightweight metal roof forms
-foam can cover up roofing problems
-potential of ponding water if scuppers/drains clog (additional live load of several thousand pounds)
Lightweight Concrete Roofs
-common on commercial occupancies
-comprised of steel trusses, girders, purlins
-chain/circular saws will fail early
-supportive structures close together (4x6 hole will encompass several trusses/purlins)
-Crews must be removed from below the proposed vent hole because of the weight of the cut panels
-Ventilation options such as natural or MPV should be attempted before vertical ventilation
4x8 panels comprised of a compressed cooler pad type material laid over panelized roofs or bar type trusses. (Cutting is best done with chain saw due to thickness)
-Assembled with lightweight construction and cover extremely large areas-Supported with few vertical columns-Roof failure is quick when exposed to fire and encompasses large areas
Built up roofs
-Flat roofs raised in areas to channel water to drains/scuppers. -can contribute to fire spread because built up area difficult to access from above or below roof-2-12 inch potential thickness of built up area-Panelized roofs are prime areas for built up roofs
-Flat or low pitched roof covered with ¼ to 4 in gravel-substantial weight added to structure-remove as much rock as possible before cutting
A 10 x 10 foot area 2 inches deep with water adds an additional ______ tons of water to the structure.
5 tons: a roof retaining a substantial amount of water must be drained prior to loading with personnel.
Stamped tin roof
Stamped tin panel over existing shake shingle
-area below the tin panel becomes a concealed space
-roof can exceed 4 inches from the tin to the bottom of sheathing (chain saw)
-probing may give false sense of security
Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU) Roofs
-difficult to recognize-unsuitable for vertical ventilation (can’t be breached with ladder tools)
Bowstrung/Wide Span Truss Roofs
-often 50 years or older (possible wood rot)
-heavy timber trusses bolted together in spaces 15-25 feet apart-front/rear walls prone to early collapse
-early roof collapse without warning
-Fire in structural members of the roof require an immediate evacuation and abandonment of the building
-if the fire is contained to contents, vertical ventilation is an option.
-if the fire involves the structure or the roof, ladder companies will not perform traditional vertical ventilation
-inspection holes should be cut to monitor roof conditions
-it is the responsibility of the roof officer to confirm there is no attic involvement
-if interior crews are able to advance and knock down the fire, ventilation activities can continue.
Ladder Pipe Operations
-those activities that utilize the master stream device on aerial apparatus-utilized on defensive fires but can be used to protect exposures on offensive fires
A beginning master stream of ________ should be the guideline for defensive operations. Streams of more are recommended for larger fires or where aerial apparatus is a substantial distance from the fire.
American La France/LTI-Tractor Drawn/Tillered Ladders
-90 ft aerial with 1 ladder pipe capable of 1000gpm
-two intakes to the pipe (one on each side)
-aerial can be moved laterally or vertically during water tower ops
-safe with one person at the tip
-the aerial is piped to all four sections; a pin must be place din the third section to extend the nozzle to the last fly section for water tower ops
LTI/American La France Platform Mid Mount Ladder
-95 foot aerial platform w/ 1 manual master stream and 1 automatic master stream
-dual 4” intakes
-2 person with equipment is max during water ops
-can support 2200 gpm when pumped at the base with 2 intake pipes at 220psi
Seagrave Tractor/Tillered Ladder
-100 ft aerial ladder
-manual ladder pipe ops. Clamp on type master stream appliance must be attached to the tip of the ladder prior to deployment. A 4” supply line to the nozzle is then flaked along the fly section as it is extended
-can support 1000 gpm at the tip with 180 psi at the base
Aerialscope with tower Platform
-75 foot aerial platform with emergency egress ladder
-ladder on this is for emergency egress only
-1000 gpm thru 2 ladder pipe guns
-2 firefighters max during water tower ops
-65 foot ladder pipe with 500 gallons of water
-1000 gpm with one remote ladder pipe gun
-can operate as an engine or a ladder apparatus
It is preferable to place the forward pumper and the ladder ___________ when possible.
-nose to nose
The new Salisbury Pumper can supply _________ to the Salisbury platforms with _______ at the base of the ladder.
It is advisable to keep the forward pumper within ______ of the ladder being pumped.
Fog vs straight
-(peripheral) used primarily for heat absorption; excellent for protecting exposures/water curtain
-used for reach and penetration; excellent for large open fires