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Flashcards in Ladders 1 Portable Ladders Deck (37):
1


***General Knowledge***
Sizes/closed lengths/weights

2.1.1
Extension Closed
Ladders Length Weight

35' 20' 135 lbs.
25' 15' 100 lbs.
24' 14' 80 lbs.
16' 10' 70 lbs.

2


The marine companies carry 12 foot and 20 foot portable hook ladders with wood beams. They are painted ______ except for the hooks and for 18 inches at the base of each beam, which are painted ______.
Fill in the blanks

2.2
black
white
These ladders do not have metal spurs at the base; there are simply the squared edges of the wood beams.

3


When an aluminum ladder fails it will break apart similar to a wooden ladder.
True or false

4.3
False
Aluminum ladders in general are tough. They will dent but will not chip or crack when subjected to severe impact nor will they fail suddenly because of overloads. They will bend but not break, as wood does.

4


If an aluminum ladder has been subjected to excessive heat exposure at a fire, even for a
brief period, it may have lost its heat treatment. This may affect its load carrying capacity, even though the metal shows no signs of any change. A discoloration may indicate a loss of structural strength. In such cases, who shall be notified?

5.3
Technical Services Division shall be notified.

5


Upon receipt of spare apparatus ladder brackets should be checked for their holding capabilities as they relate to the unit's ladder inventory. If ladders cannot be held securely, what procedures should be followed?

6.1.2 A&B
The Technical Services Division shall immediately be notified by telephone. A requisition shall be forwarded and an entry made in the company journal. Provision shall be made to secure ladders as safely as possible pending repair or relocation of ladder holding devices by the Technical Services Division. These temporary fastenings shall be checked after each response.

6


If the officer on duty feels that a particular ladder cannot be temporarily secured to the spare apparatus in a safe manner, and there is a danger of loss of the ladder during response, what actions shall be taken with the ladder?

6.1.2 C
The ladder shall be left off the apparatus. An entry of this action shall be made in the company journal.

7

The numerical length of a ladder shall be marked on the side of the rails within __ inches of the end of the ladder.
Straight ladders - The ladder length shall be marked on ____ end of each rail.
Extension ladders - The ladder length shall be marked at the ____end only of each rail of the bed ladder.
Ladder length markings shall be visible when ladders are stored on the apparatus.
Fill in the Blanks

7.1,7.1.1,7.1.2,7.1.3
12
each
butt

8


The unit designation shall be marked within ___ inches of each butt end as outlined in Sections 7.1.1 and 7.1.2 for numerical ladder length markings.
Fill in the blank

7.2
18

9


If another apparatus arriving at a fire or emergency is positioned closer than 20 feet to the rear of the ladder apparatus, what ladders cannot be removed from these racks due to insufficient clearance?

8.1.1
20 foot straight and/or 35 foot extension ladders are carried in the internal slide-in racks on many ladder company apparatus. If another apparatus arriving at a fire or emergency is positioned closer than 20 feet to the rear of the ladder apparatus, the 20 foot straight or the 35 foot extension ladder cannot be removed from these racks due to insufficient clearance.

10


Ladder Climbing Angle - Climbing angle for a ground ladder is approximately 65-75 degrees. The 65-75 degree angle allows the ladder to provide its maximum strength and best service. An angle steeper than 75 degrees increases the chances of the climber falling off and sustaining injuries. Ladders angled less than 65 degrees require a reduction in maximum loading. A simple formula used to obtain a 75 degree angle is to place the base of the ladder at a distance from the vertical plane equal to 1/4 the total working length of the ladder. The working length is the distance from the base of the ladder to the top of what?

8.4, 8.4.1 ,8.4.2, 8.4.3, 8.4.4
The working length is the distance from the base of the ladder to the top of its SUPPORT.

11


Rules for Portable Ladder Placement.
Placed at a window -
Placed at a roof -
Placed alongside a fire escape on a building wall -
Placed against a fire escape -

8.5.1 A,B,C,D
-Tip shall be level with window sill.
-Tip shall be at least 2 feet above the roof or parapet.
-Tip shall be 1 to 3 feet above the fire escape railing.
-Tip shall be slightly above the fire escape railing.

12


In order to prevent slippage of the butt, or movement of the top, of a raised portable ladder, it is important that it be butted by a member. In any case for fire, emergency or rescue work, a butt man shall be used to stabilize the ladder and
prevent slipping. The butting member places what footon the bottom rung of the ladder?

8.6.1 A
The butting member places his left foot in the center of the bottom rung of the ladder and maintains a downward pressure. His right foot is positioned behind him at a comfortable distance to maintain balance and provide resistance against ladder movement.

13


If a member is working off one side of the ladder, the butt man moves his foot from the center of the bottom rung of the ladder to what side of the ladder?

8.6.1 C.
If a member is working off one side of the ladder, the butt man moves his foot from the center of the bottom rung of the ladder to the side opposite
the one from which the man is working, and places his foot next to the beam. This will prevent the bottom of the beam from shifting due to the
relocated weight of the member working on the ladder.

14


The butt man must be aware of the force that causes the outward slippage of the butt of the ladder. This force is in direct proportion to the climbing member's weight, _________ as he ascends the ladder, and is maximum at the ___ of the ladder.
Fill in the Blanks

8.6.2
increases
top
Because of this, extra care must be exercised when a member receives a victim at the top of the ladder.

15


The aluminum portable ladder, if it is to be left unattended, should be secured at the tip by what member?

8.6.3
The aluminum portable ladder, if it is to be left unattended, should be secured at the tip by the first member that climbs the ladder. This is to prevent the ladder from being dislodged from its position by the wind or by the impact of water from a hose line or a large caliber stream.

16


When the portable ladder has been raised and placed in position, one member butts the ladder. The assigned member climbs the ladder in the
following manner:
Climb on the balls of the feet near the arch, left and right of the center line up and down the ladder.
Climbing is done in a rhythmic, coordinated manner.
During the climb, the eyes look up or forward. Wher are the hands placed during the climb?

9.1, 9.1.1, 9.1.2, 9.1.3, 9.1.4
The underside of the beams are grasped with the hands.

17


How should we climb a portable ladder with a tool?

9.1.5
If a tool is carried, it should be balanced in the carrying hand, which holds onto the side of the beam. The free hand continues to grasp the underside of the beam. Do not carry the tool close to the body or inside the ladder over the rungs because of the danger to the butt man below should the tool be accidentally dropped

18


During freezing weather when ice forms on the ladder due to water spray, to ensure safe ascending and descending: Where should our feet be placed on the rungs?

9.1.6 A, B, C
Position the rung of the ladder under the arch of the boot, next to the heel.
Position the feet on the rungs directly next to the beams with each step, to avoid slipping.
The hands remain on the underside of the beams. Should a member slip while climbing, he should immediately pull himself into the ladder and regain his footing.

19


The leg performing the locking maneuver is opposite the working side. For example, if the member wants to lean to the right and vent a window, he will lock his left leg on the ladder.
To perform the leg lock, the locking leg is placed over and under the rung that is___ rungs above the one on which the member is standing. The instep of the locking leg is placed on the beam of the ladder opposite the member's working side. The arch of the foot on the rung is placed against the other beam.
Fill in the blank

9.2.1 A, B, C, D
two

20


When using the Life Belt:
The snap hook of the life belt hooks directly to what part of the portable ladder?

9.2.2
The ladder rung.

21


Portable Ladder Capacities in pounds are as follows:
A. Collapsible ladders -
B. Roof, straight and extension ladders (26' or less) -
C. Extension ladders (27' to 35') -

9.4.2
up to 300 pounds load.
up to 500 pounds load.
up to 600 pounds load.

22


Used to Bridge a Fence - At times it's necessary to gain access to a particular area surrounded by a high fence with no immediately available entry way. If the situation does not require cutting the fence, entrance may be gained by using two short portable ladders, e.g., a ___ extension ladder and a ___ hook ladder, and a short length of rope or hose strap.
Fill in the blanks

10.2.1
16 foot
12 foot

23


When using the 16' extension and 12' straight ladders to bridge a fence what ladder is used against the fence and what ladder is passed over the fence?

10.2.1 A, B, C, D, E & Note:
The 16' extension ladder is used first against the fence because of its heavier weight. The 12' hook ladder is lighter and less cumbersome than the 16'
ladder and may be passed more readily. Other combinations of short ladders may be used, depending on the height of the fence to be laddered and the available ladder inventory.
The 16' extension ladder, nested, is placed against the fence at the proper climbing angle and butted by a member. (The nested length of the 16'
extension ladder is about 10'.)
One man ascends the ladder to the point where the top of the fence is at about waist level.
The butt end of the 12' hook ladder is passed to the member on the 16' extension ladder. He in turn takes the ladder and places one beam on top
of the fence. The hook ladder is slid out a sufficient distance, pivoted downward from the fence top, and lowered to the ground.
The hook ladder is adjusted to provide a proper climbing angle.
The adjacent beams of the two ladders are tied together securely where they intersect, to prevent ladder movement during use.

24


Used as a Barrier - Portable ladders may be utilized as barriers to dangerous areas or conditions, to protect members or civilians from injury. Portable ladders placed on one beam, elevated to the _____ level on supports and properly secured, can act as a barrier to civilian pedestrian traffic near a hazardous condition or fire operation.
Fill in the blank

10.2.3 B.
waist

25


Buildings requiring the Use of Portable Ladders - In the following examples it will be assumed that a fire of moderate to severe intensity exists somewhere within the building.
Tenements without front fire escape:
When the fire is in the cellar, 1st floor, and/or 2nd floor, raise the portable ladders to what locations?

11.2.1 A
When the fire is in the cellar, 1st floor, and/or 2nd floor, raise the portable ladders adjacent to and above the fire area even if the aerial ladder will be
required on the upper floors. A severe fire may render the interior stairs untenable and portable ladders will be required, even if the need is not
obvious from the street.

26


Buildings requiring the Use of Portable Ladders -In the following examples it will be assumed that a fire of moderate to severe intensity exists somewhere within the building.
Tenements and multiple dwellings with front fire escape:
Fire escapes often become overcrowded when there is a fire anywhere within the building. Under these conditions, a portable ladder should be raised to what location(s)?

10.2.1 B 1
The first balcony at a point opposite the drop ladder. If more relief for the fire escape is required, another portable ladder should be raised to the second balcony.

27


The rear of the brownstone presents a severe life hazard if there is no fire escape. Portable ladders transported to the rear of the building and properly positioned are safer than a life saving rope rescue. They require less manpower and effort.
Due to operations in the fire building, to barred windows at the basement level, and to floor layout, movement of portable ladders to the rear may be difficult and time consuming, In most cases, taking the ladder through the second floor (parlor
floor) of an adjoining brownstone, passing it out the rear window to another member in the yard below, is faster than using the fire building. In a row frame, transporting a ladder through the interior of the
building to the rear is generally less complicated because there are front and rear doors or window entries at ground level.
In a Brownstone it is important to take the ladder through the building with which end facing the rear of the building?
***BBB***

11.2.2 D 1
Note: In a brownstone, it is important to take the ladder through with the butt facing the rear of the building.
***Butt to Back of Building***

28


Most often, all floors in the rear of a brownstone can be reached with portable extension ladders. It is recommended that extension ladders be used in lieu of straight ladders because:
a. They are easier to transport because of the shorter nested length.
b. The ladder height can be adjusted.
c. One ladder may serve several floors.
d. Generally, floor and ladder working length are:
1) 4th floor -
2) 3rd floor -
3) 2nd floor -

11.2.2 D 2
35' extension ladder.
25' or 35' extension ladder.
16' or 25' extension ladder, or 10' - 14' "A" Frame ladder.

29


Forcible Entry - Straight ladders have been successfully used to force entry into stores and other occupancies having what type of doors?

11.3.1
Wood frame inward opening doors.
This method will provide a margin of safety where conventional methods of forcible
entry would place members in a hazardous position, e.g., when, working in return show window area of plate glass panels, heat or flame prevents close approach, or where the possibility of back draft exists.

30


When a member is ventilating a window from a portable ladder the tip of the ladder should be placed where?

11.3.2 A
The ladder is placed upwind from the window to be ventilated. The placement should provide a margin of safety to the member if the fire extends out of the window.
2. The tip of the ladder, if possible, should be level with, or higher than the top of the window.
3. The member's eye shield shall be in the down position.
4. Deleted.
5. When the member is positioned on the ladder and prepares to use a tool to ventilate the window (a 6 foot hook is preferable), he should extend his
arms upward and slant the tool downward and strike the glass. This will prevent the window glass from sliding down the tool handle and causing
injury to the member.
6. Placing the ladder upwind from the window will allow the falling glass, to some degree, to be blown away from the member butting the ladder below.

31


When a member is using a portable ladder to vent a window they should always have contact with the ladder to prevent it from falling.
True or False

11.3.2 B
False
When the ladder strikes the glass, there should be NO CONTACT between the member and the ladder. The reason for this is that there is a great
probability that the window glass will slide down the ladder beams. By the member maintaining a ‘no contact’ position, he reduces the chances of
personal injury. Care should also be taken to insure that no other personnel are in the ‘danger area’.
As soon as the glass sections have fallen or are clear of the ladder, the member must stabilize the ladder to prevent its falling to the ground.

32


Portable ladders used in bridging operations can span courts, alleys, shafts and similar openings between floors and roofs. Extension ladders must be used in what position?

11.3.7
Extension ladders must be used only in the nested position when bridging.

33


Do not climb higher than the _____ rung from the top on either straight or extension ladders.
Fill in the blank

13.1.9
Third

34


what shall the officer do with a defective portable ladder?

13.1.13
Never maintain a defective ladder in service. When a defect in a ladder is found during an in-quarters inspection or damaged at a fire, remove the ladder from service and notify the Technical Services Division for their recommendation as to collection, repair or replacement.

35


When operations are to be conducted at electrical generating stations or substations, under NO circumstances shall metal ladders or tools be brought inside the gates. Only wooden ladders can be placed against what appears to be a metal superstructure.
True or False

13.2.5 A.
False
Never place a ladder of any type, wood or metal, against what appears to be metal superstructure. It may turn out to be some form of electrical conductor.

36


***General Knowledge***
A visual inspection of portable ladders shall be made weekly, and also after use, to determine their condition and serviceability. Examples of ladder defects are as follows:

14.2.3
A. Cracked welds.
B. Loose rungs.
C. Bent rungs or beams.
D. Missing or loose rivets, nuts, or bolts.
E. Discoloration signaling excessive exposure to heat.
F. Broken mechanical lock assemblies on extension ladders.
Never maintain a defective ladder in service. When a defect in a ladder is found during an in-quarters inspection or damaged at a fire, remove the ladder from service and notify the Technical Services Division for their recommendation as to collection, repair or replacement.

37


Pulleys are found on all extension ladders. These pulleys usually have a ballbearing center that requires __ to __ drops of oil once a year.
Fill in the blanks

14.3.2 A
1 to 2