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Flashcards in Language & aphasia Deck (50):
1

Where is Wernicke's area located?

Posterior 2/3 of superior temporal gyrus

1

Prognosis of transcortical sensory aphasia

Variable; pts with vascular etiology will often exhibit improvement of comprehension, improve to anomic aphasia, or nearly resolve

1

Subcortical aphasia Type III

Posterior & anterior extension (global aphasia)

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Prognosis of transcortical motor aphasia

Variable, pts with vascular etiology may evolve to anomic aphasia or symptoms may nearly resolve

3

Prognosis of conduction aphasia

Variable; pts can recover & evolve to anomic aphasia or almost completely resolve

4

Subcortical aphasia Type I

Anterior superior extension; fluency marked by short phrases, impaired articulation, poor repetition for low frequency phrases, intact comprehension for semantic info, poor writing, poor comprehension of syntactic info

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Word class effects

Tendency of aphasia pts to have differential ability depending on the type of word (e.g., Broca's aphasics skip more connection words)

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Paragrammatism

Inaccurate selection of function words

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Where is Broca's area located?

Opercular & triangular portions of the inferior frontal gyrus

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Neuroanatomical correlate of transcortical motor aphasia

Lesion of dominant frontal lobe, often anterior or superior to Broca's area

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Role of Broca's area

Translating neural word forms into their articulatory sequences & sequencing words & their endings into utterances that have meaning (appropriate syntactic structure)

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Scanning speech

Speech disorder of cerebellar origin that is characterized by variable intonation assoc. w/ involuntary interruption between syllables

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Profile of transcortical motor aphasia

Similar to Broca's, but fluency less impaired, & repetition intact

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What is the role of the right hemisphere in language?

Prosody, attitudinal, emotional, & gestural aspects of language & behavior

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Typical course/presentation of subcortical aphasia

Usually mutism or hypophonic voicing, poor articulation; repetition better than speech due to fewer paraphasias & reduced dysarthria; comprehension often relatively preserved; frequently transient with acute onset

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Neuroanatomical correlate of Wernicke's aphasia

Lesion of dominant inferior perisylvian fissure, often extending superiorly to parietal region affecting the supramarginal gyrus

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Morphemes

Smallest meaningful units of a word

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Aphemia

Nonaphasic, nondysarthric impairment of fluency caused by problems with initiation & maintenance of motor mvmt

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Profile of anomic aphasia

Impaired naming with frequent circumlocutions or paraphasias

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Polygot

Individual who is fluent in more than on language, may display different patterns of language impairment & recovery for each language

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Semantics

Meanings that correspond to all lexical items & all possible sentences

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Prognosis of Wernicke's aphasia

Variable; pts with vascular etiology often exhibit improvement of comprehension, can evolve to transcortical sensory or conduction aphasia

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Prognosis of Broca's aphasia

Variable; pts with vascular etiology frequently improve to anomic aphasia with mild reduced fluency

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Profile of global aphasia

Impaired fluency, comprehension, repetition, naming, & writing

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Profile of mixed transcortical aphasia

Similar to global but with intact repetition

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Phonemes

Individual sound units whose connection, in a particular order, produces morphemes

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Profile of Broca's aphasia

Impaired fluency, repetition, naming, writing; relatively intact comprehension

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Right hemisphere damage impacts on language

Affects prosody, gesturing, emotional aspects, may change vocab selection, responses to complex statements, understanding of metaphors, decreased fluency

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Neuroanatomical correlate of Broca's aphasia

Lesion of dominant anterior hemisphere

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Neuroanatomical correlate of mixed transcortical aphasia

Isolation of perisylvian fissure area by diffuse dominant hemisphere lesion; spares arcuate fasciculus

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Outcome of aphasia treatment is related to

Disease factors (profile, severity) Premorbid factors (intelligence, communication skills, vocab) Status of other skills (concurrent deficits) Pre/postmorbid coping

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Neuroanatomical correlate of global aphasia

Large lesions affecting both anterior & posterior regions of the left hemisphere; involves both Broca's & Wernicke's

33

How is the angular gyrus involved in language?

Central area in processing of written language

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Spontaneous recovery is generally better for what type of language deficits?

Comprehension vs. output problems

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Profile of Wernicke's aphasia

Fluent but unintelligible speech, impaired comprehension, repetition, & naming; fluent writing but with paraphasias & neologisms

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Prognosis of mixed transcortical aphasia

Variable; pts with vascular etiology may evolve to Broca's or anomic aphasia

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Right hemisphere lesions can result in what language changes?

Changes in vocabulary selection, responses to complex statements; poor understanding of metaphors; reduction in understanding & use of prosody

39

Syntax

Admissible combos of words in phrases & sentences (grammar)

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Profile of conduction aphasia

Fluent speech but with paraphasias & naming errors, intact comprehension & writing, markedly impaired repetition

40

Stimulation of parts of the thalamus lead to what language phenomena?

Speech arrests, naming problems, perseveration, & protracted speech

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Neuroanatomical correlate of transcortical sensory aphasia

Lesion of dominant temporoparietal-occipital are or parieto-occipital area, posterior to Wernicke's area

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Profile of transcortical sensory aphasia

Similar to Wernicke's, but with intact repetition

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Neuroanatomical correlate of conduction aphasia

Lesion of dominant temporoparietal area, particularly supramarginal gyrus & underlying WM; arcuate fasciculus is damaged

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Arcuate fasciculus

Subcortical white matter pathway connecting Wernicke's & Broca's

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Subcortical aphasia Type II

Posterior extension; intact fluency but paraphasic, poor repetition, impaired names of letters but better naming of objects, poor comprehension but better than Wernicke's, poor reading/writing

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Other than Broca's, what other cortical areas are involved in naming?

Anterior superior & middle temporal gyri, left anterior cingulate, left ventral frontal, left medial occipital

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Disconnection of premotor & supplementary motor areas from Broca's area may result in

Transcortical motor aphasia, aphemia

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Prognosis of global aphasia

Typically evolves to Broca's aphasia with improvement in comprehension

49

What is the role of Wernicke's area?

Initial steps of language processing that enable particular sequences of sounds to be identified & comprehended as meaningful words

50

Lexicon

Collection of all words in a given language