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Flashcards in Language and Communication Deck (14):

What are different branches of studying language?

- Interested in describing language
- Science based and formal
- Etic apprach

Socio/anthro linguistics
- Description of language in social settings
- Talk and sexuality, social class

Linguistic anthropology
- How people use language to do things,
- Patterns of speech, conversational style
- Emic approach

*NOTE: all overlap


What is language?

- All cultures have language
- All languages are equally able to provide speakers with a means of communication
-Not a speciality for human beings


What are the design features of language?

- created by Charles Hackett
- *Discreetness
○ Languages made of set of unique/discrete sounds
○ When combined allow for communication/meaning
- *Symbolic & arbitrary
○ Symbolic and arbitrary connection between sound/sign and meaning
○ Agreement between people that a sound= certain thing
- *Duality of Patterning
○ Need sounds/signs combined with an image for meaning to be created
- *Productivity
○ Open system, creative
- *Displacement
○ Not tied to a place or time
- Use a channel to facilitate communication (vocal -> auditory)
- Language is learned
- Rapid fading
- Interchangeability
- Feedback


Who is Roman Jakobson?

-russian linguist
outlined 6 minimal features requires for successful communication
- Adresser/speaker
- Addressee/receiver
- Code
- Channel
- Message
*miscommunication if any component lacking


How are animal call systems related to language?

- No animal call systems appear to have all design ffeatures
- Animals do communicate
- Most animal call systems are closed systems
- Each call is unique, depends on circumstance
- Some animal systems show things like: openness, displacement, duality fo patterning
Ex: vervet monkey: acoustic alarms (calls), learned calls
Ex: bee dance: precise info about food


How can you describe language?

-Phonology: study of sounds that make up human languages
○ Phonetics: study of human sounds in language, framework for understanding sounds of human languages
○ Phonemics: sounds of particular language, phonemes (sounds of language that don’t mean anything by themselves but can affect meaning)
EX: /t/+/i/+/n/ to make sound "tin", if using /p/ not /t/ sound gived word new meaning
- English has 44 phonemes, piraha 10 phonemes, Tsasi 141 phonemes


What is morphology?

- Structure of words
- Study of morpheme (sound with meaning)
- Ex: pins: {pin} {z}
- **Ex: unfaithful: {un} +{faith}+{full}
- What are the plural morphemes in English?
○ {z}, {en} oxen, {0} fish, {ce} mice, …


What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?

- Edward sapir
- Does language determine the way in which you see, understand the worlld
- Does language determine culture
○ Yes language determines culture: "linguistic determinism"
English time represented by length, number, measurable


How do the hopi talk about time?

- Time is described/ascribed around process
- Verb tenses are limited/ no spatial metaphor like english
Continuously unfolding events


Who is Aarrison?

- gave opinion on losing languages
- losing cultural information or biological information


Approximately how many languages will be left in 80-100 years

- currently 6000-7000
80-100 years only have 1000


Who is william labun?

- Hypothesis: /r/ if stronger pronounced associated with upper class while weakly pronounced r associated with lower class
- Correct pronunciation in setting where social class may be questioned
Labuns phrase: fourth floor


What are the Tahltan hunting stories

- moose hunting stories
- Arthur and his cousin (conversational stories), used to pass the time, quick witted, animals that got away
- talk about failed hunts
- did fail because they were disrespectful to animal?
-believe moose control outcome of hunts

- ex: meat mother (myth time), animals chose whether they will provide themselves to the hunter, control the hunt


What is a syntax?

structure of words/sentances