Flashcards in Large Animal Anatomy Dr C review questions on head Deck (92):
Name the processes of the bovine zygomatic bone
Frontal and temporal process
In which species can the supraorbital sulcus be seen?
In which species does the facial crest end at the facial tubercle?
In which species can the interincisive fissure be outlined?
In which species can the interincisive canal be outlined?
The condylar canal is found only in this species
Is there a foramen lacerum in ruminants?
The bony foramen ovale is found in which species?
The hard palate consists of the following bones:
-palatine processes of the incisive and maxillary bones
-horizontal parts of the palatine bones
Name the foramina of the pterygopalatine fossa
Maxillary, sphenopalatine, caudal palatine
List in a dorsoventral order the foramina of the orbital hiatus in ruminants
Ethmoid foramina, optic canal, foramen orbitorotundum
Whose bone does the piriform fossa belong to?
the wing of the basiphenoid bone
Which species does the depressor of the upper lip belong to?
Name the muscle where the cutaneous faciei M. originates from
Depressor of the lower lip
In which species is the occipitomandibular part of the digastricus found?
Which group of the muscles of the ear is called "muscles of attention"?
Describe the stylohyoid muscle in the equine
Muscular origin on the stylohyoid angle of the stylohyoid bone; tendon is split and inserted on the basihyoid bone
Is the occipitohyoideus an intrinsic muscle of the hyoid apparatus?
Name the structures that the transversus hyoideus is attached to
List the attachments of the lateral pterygoid muscle
Origin on the pterygoid crest, insertion on the pterygoid fossa
List the masticatory muscles which the open the mouth
Which of the masticatory muscles is supplied by the facial N.?
Caudal belly of the digastricus
List the branches of the facial A. in the bovine
Inferior labial, superior labial, angularis oris, lateral nasal (rostral and caudal), dorsal nasal, angularis oculi (the last three may be branches of the malar a.)
List all terminal branches of the maxillary A. between the rostral alar foramen and the pterygopalatine fossa (in equine of course)
Buccal, minor palatine, infraorbital, malaris, descending palatine, sphenopalatine, major palatine
What is the name of the artery delivered by the infraorbital A. before entering the maxillary foramen?
Malar A. (malaris)
Which species are not provided with the linguofacial trunk. A.?
small ruminants (may be absent in cow)
List all structures in a rostrocaudal order running parallel and close to the rostral border of the masseter M. in bovine
Facial A., facial V., mandibular marginal branch, parotid duct
List the veins of the horse head provided with dilations (sinuses)
Transverse facial, deep facial, buccal
List the lymph nodes of the head in equine
Parotid, mandibular, medial retropharyngeal, lateral retropharyngeal
What is the name of the etiologic agent responsible for the condition called melioidosis?
Burkholderia (or bacillus, or malleomyces) pseudomallei
List by roman numerals the motor cranial nerves
oculomotor N (III), trochlear N (IV), abducens N (VI), accessory N (XI), hypoglossal N (XII)
List by roman numerals hte cranial nerves carrying parasympathetic fibers
occulomotor (III), facial N (VII), glossopharyngeal N (IX), vagus (X)
List the parasympathetic ganglia of the head in the large mammals
Ciliary, pterygopalatine, mandibular, otic
List the preganglionic fibers of cranial N. III
List the structures supplied by the postganglionic fibers ciliary, pterygopalatine, mandibular and otic ganglia
Ciliary - eye
Pterygopalatine - the lacrimal gland, third eyelid, nasal glands
Mandibular - mandibular and sublingual salivary glands
Otic - parotid gland
List the branches of the ophthalmic N.
Lacrimal N., Frontal N., Nasociliary N (long cilliary Nn, ethmoidal N, infratrochlear N)
List the branches of the maxillary N.
Zygomatic N. (zygomaticotemporal branch, zygomaticofacial branch); Pterygopalatine N. (major palatine N, minor palatine N, caudal nasal N); Infraoribtal N
List the branches of the mandibular N
Masticatory N (caudal and middle deep temporal, masseteric N),
Buccal N. (rostral deep temporal N.),
Medial and Lateral Pterygoid Nn
Inferior alveolar N. (mylohyoid N, mental N.)
List the muscles supplied by the abducent N.
Lateral rectus and retractor bulbi
List the branches of the intermediate N.
Chorda tympani (madibular ggl.), major petrosal N. (pterygopalatine ggl)
List the branches of the facial N. in its subparotidian segment (from the stylomastoid foramen to running on the masseter M)
Ramus colli, digastric N. (sending the stylohyoid N.), caudal auricular, internal auricular branch, auriculopalpebral
List the nerves which control the sensitivity of the head skin as branches of the trigeminal N., and their territory of supply
-ophthalmic N: the eye and from the base of the ear through the facial crest and infraorbital foramen: from here a perpendicular to the midline of the head
-Maxillary (infraorbital N.): rostral to the territory of the ophthalmic N., from facial tubercle to the commissure of the lips and the upper lip
-Mandibular (auriculotemporal N): base of the ear, and ventral to the territories of the former two nerves and close to the ventral border of the head
List the branches of the maxillary A. and maxillary N. and the foramina of the pterygopalatine fossa where the branches pass through
-Maxillary foramen: infraorbital A. and N.
-Sphenopalatine foramen: sphenopalatine A., caudal nasal N.
-Caudal palatine foramen: major palatine A. and N.
List the foramina that the branches of the maxillary A. and N. exit
-Infraorbital foramen: infraorbital N.
-major palatine foramen: major palatine A. and N.
List the nerves which control the sensitivity of the skin around the eye
supraorbital, supratrochlear, infratrochlear, zygomaticofacial, zygomaticotemporal, lacrimal
While twitching the upper lip a nerve is compressed producing pain; name this nerve
What artery does the cornual A. belong to; what nerve does the cornual N. belong to?
Cornual A. branches off of the superficial temporal A.; cornual N. branches from the lacrimal N. or the zygomaticotemporal N.
What additional nerve should be blocked while dehorning a goat besides the cornual N.?
The glossopharyngeal and the vagus Nn. have one branch with the same name, which is this?
List the bone, muscle, artery, and nerves shown on the lateral aspect of the hyoid apparatus in a rostrocaudal direction
Stylohyoid bone, CNIX, linguofacial trunk A., CNXII, stylohyoideus
List the muscles supplied by the oculomotor N.
Levator palpebrae superioris; dorsal, medial and ventral rectus; ventral oblique
List the landmarks and approaches for blocking the infraorbital N.
Infraorbital foramen, facial tubercle, nasoincisive notch
The nostrils in all species are provided with cartilages. Which is the only species with alar cartilages?
List the conchae and meatuses of the nasal cavity
Conchae: dorsal, middle, ventral, ethmoidal
Meatuses: dorsal, middle, ventral, and common
What is the name of the largest ethmoidal concha?
Middle conchal sinus
Define the choana
The communication between one nasal compartment and the nasopharynx
Pass a nasogastric tube or an endoscope up to the origin of the esophagus; follow it
Nostril, ventral nasal meatus, choana, nasopharynx, intrapharyngeal opening
Outline the caudal maxillary sinus in equine
Medial angle of the eye, facial crest, 1-2 cm caudal to facial tubercle
List the compartments of the frontal paranasal sinus in ruminants
Medial, intermediate and lateral rostral, caudal frontal
Which are the compartments of the oral cavity?"
Oral cavity proper, vestibulum
Where is the fossa linguae located?
In front of the torus linguae (in ruminants only)
The sublingual caruncle protects the openings of which ducts?
mandibular and major sublingual salivary glands
The horse has only one sublingual salivary gland. Which of them?
Define the isthmus faucium
Communication between the oral cavity and the oropharynx, outlined by the palatoglossal folds, soft palate, and the tongue
Where is the palatine tonsil located in bovine?
Within the soft palate, and containing the palatine sinus
Where the hyoglossus M. attaches to and what is its action?
Attaches to the basihyoid and root of the tongue; retracts and depresses the tongue
What is the soft floor of the oral cavity made of?
Mylohyoideus and geniohyoideus Mm.
Where the parotid duct opens in the eq?
At the level of the 3rd upper PM, on parotid papilla
List the muscles of the soft palate
Palatinus, tensor veli palatini, and levator veli palatini
What is the name of the muscle of the soft palate whose tendon surrounds the pterygoid hamulus?
Tensor veli palatini
What is the epiglottic entrapment?
The positioning of the loose rostral epiglottic mucosa over the thickened caudal epiglottic mucosa
What is the dorsal displacement of the soft palate?
When the soft palate is positioned above the epiglottis
List the compartments of the pharynx
oropharynx, nasopharynx, laryngopharynx
List the communications of the pharynx as a whole with the neighboring structures
-Two rotrodorsal choanae (with the nasal cavity)
-one rostroventral isthmus faucium (with the oral cavity proper)
-two lateral symmetrical pharyngeal openings of the auditory tubes
-one caudodorsal opening (to the esophagus)
-one caudoventral aditus laryngis
Name the boundaries of the nasopharynx
choanae, intrapharyngeal ostium, fornix, soft palate
Name the boundaries of the oropharynx
Isthmus faucium, epiglottis, soft palate, base of the tongue
Why is the laryngopharynx physiologically important?
The digestive and respiratory pathways cross each other
The pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube is accompanied on each side by a prominence called "torus." What is the name of them?
Torus tubarius, torus levatorius
List by groups the constrictor muscles of the pharynx
-Rostral (1st): pterygopharyngeus, palatopharyngeus
-Middle (2nd): hyopharyngeus
-Caudal (3rd): thyro- and cricopharyngeus
Which are the nerves supplying the pharyngeal muscles?
CN IX (glossopharyngeal), CN X (vagus)
Describe the act of deglutition
The soft palate is shortened by the contraction of the palatinus, and lifted up by the levator veli palatini, the pharynx is dilated by the stylopharyngeus; the 1st, 2nd and 3rd constrictors push the bolus in three ways; after deglutition is performed, the tensor veli palatini restores the resting position of the soft palate
What is the guttural pouch?
An evagination of the mucosa of the auditory tube through a fissure in the cartilage of the tube
Define viborg's triangle
The space between the linguofacial V., caudal border of ramus of mandible, and the crossed tendon of the sternomandibularis with the occipitomandibular part of the digastricus
Describe the compartments of the gutteral pounch
Lateral smaller, medial larger, incompletely separated by stylohyoid bone
List the roman numerals of CNs which run on the surface of the gutteral pouch
CN VII (facial), IX - XII
Which are the most vulnerable structures passing over the medial compartment of the guttural pouch?
Internal carotid A.
What is the empyema of the guttural pouch?
Accumulation of purulent material
Describe the uveal tract (uvea, vascular tunic) of the eye
Choroid, ciliary body (processes and muscle), iris
By which structure the anterior chamber of the eye is separated from the posterior chamber?
Name the components of the conjuctiva
Palpebral, bulbar, 3rd eyelid
Describe the lacrimal apparatus
Lacrimal gland, canalicluli, lacrimal caruncle, lacrimal puncta, canaliculi and sac, nasolacrimal canal