Large Animal Anatomy - Openings in the Skull Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Large Animal Anatomy - Openings in the Skull Deck (31):
1

Interincisive Canal

Major palatine A. (a single artery originating from the anastomosis of both Major Palatine Aa.)
Present only in the dog and horse.

2

Infraorbital foramen

Rostral opening of the infraorbital canal
Infraorbital A. (branch of Maxillary A.)
Infraorbital V.
Infraorbital N. (branch of maxillary N.)

3

Maxillary foramen

Caudal opening of infraorbital canal
Infraorbital A., V., & N.

4

Sphenopalatine foramen

Opening between the pterygopalatine fossa and the nasal cavity
Sphenopalatine A. & V.
Caudal Nasal N.

5

Caudal Palatine Foramen

Caudal opening of the Major (greater) palatine canal
Major Palatine A. & N.

6

Major Palatine Foramen

Rostral opening of the major (greater) palatine canal
Major Palatine A. & N.

7

Fossa for Lacrimal Sac

Absent in the pig
Lacrimal Sac sits in fossa

8

Lacrimal Foramen & Lacrimal Canal

The lacrimal canal is part of the nasolacrimal canal within the lacrimal bone.
Nasolacrimal duct passes through

9

Infratrochlear incisure

-infratrochlear N.
The infratrochlear N. (sensory) can be blocked at this location.

10

Where can the infratrochlear N. be blocked?

Infratrochlear incisure

11

Infratrochlear N. motor or sensory?

Sensory

12

Supraorbital Foramen (eq)

Supraorbital A. & V.
Frontal N.
Frontal N. emerges through the supraorbital foramen/canal ONLY IN THE HORSE.

13

Supraorbital Canal (su & Ru)

Supraorbital A. and V.
(NO FRONTAL N. HERE IN SU and RU)

14

Ethmoid foramen

External ethmoidal A. & V. and Ethmoid N.
The A., V., and N. enter the cranial cavity through the ethmoid foramen and then pass through the lamina cribrosa to enter the nasal cavity.

15

Optic canal

Optic N. (= cranial N. II)
Located in presphenoid bone

16

Orbital fissure

Oculomotor N. (= cranial N. III)
Trochlear N. (= cranial N. IV)
Ophthalmic N. (a branch of the trigeminal N. (CN V))
Abducens N. (=cranial N. VI)
-present in the carnivores and the horse
-in the majority of horses, the trochlear N. passes through a small foramen, the trochlear foramen located on the pterygoid crest

17

In majority of horses, where does the trochlear N. pass?

Trochlear foramen located on the pterygoid crest

18

Round foramen (= foramen rotundum)

Maxillary N. (a branch of the trigeminal N)
-Present in carnivores and horse
-opens into the alar canal in the dog and the horse

19

Foramen Orbitorotundum

Oculomotor N. (= cranial N III)
Trochlear N. (= cranial N IV)
Ophthalmic N. (branch of trigeminal N. (cranial N V))
Maxillary N. (branch of trigeminal N.)
Abducens N. (= cranial N. VI)
**Cranial Nerves 3-6 pass through here**

20

Oval foramen (= foramen ovale)

Mandibular N. (a branch of the trigeminal N.)
-Present in ruminants and carnivores

21

Rostral alar foramen

Maxillary A. & N.
(maxillary N. is branch of trigeminal N.)
-Present ONLY in dog and horse, it is the rostral opening of the alar canal

22

Small alar foramen

Rostral deep temporal A.
-present only in the horse, it opens into the alar canal

23

Caudal alar foramen

Maxillary A.
-Present ONLY in dog and horsrse
-it is the caudal opening of the alar canal

24

Internal Acoustic Meatus

Facial N. (= cranial N. VII)
Vestibulocochlear N. (= cranial N. VIII)
-Internal opening of the facial canal

25

Stylomastoid foramen

Facial N. (= cranial N. VII)
The external opening of the facial canal

26

Foramen Lacerum

Internal Carotid A. (carotid incisure)
Mandibular N. (Oval incisure)
Middle meningeal A. (spinoud incisure)
-Present ONLY in the horse and pig
-the carotid incisure is not present n the pig
-foramen lacerum connected b/w carotid incisure proximally and jugular foramen distally

27

Jugular foramen

Glossopharyngeal N. (= cranial N. IX)
Vagus N. (= cranial N. X)
Accessory N. (= cranial N. XI)
Internal carotid A. (Su & Ru)
-Located between the occipital bone and the petrous part of the temporal bone (just distal to foramen lacerum)

28

Canal for the Hypoglossal Nerve

Hypoglossal N. (= cranial N. XII)
-Hypoglossal N. innervates all extrinsic and all intrinsic muscles of the tongue

29

Condylar Canal

Condylar sinus (venous)
-present in carnivores and ruminants ONLY

30

Mandibular Foramen

Inferior alveolar A. & V. (branches of the maxillary A. & V.)
Inferior alveolar N. (branch of the mandibular N.)
-Mandibular foramen is the caudal opening of the mandibular canal

31

Mental Foramen

Mental A & V (branches of the inferior alveolar A. & V.)
Mental N. (a branch of the inferior alveolar N.)
-Mental foramen is the rostral opening of the mandibular canal