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Flashcards in Larson Deck (209):
1

isolation by distance

gene flow occurs mainly between neighboring populations; a new mutation may spread across a large geographic distance over many generations by traversing neighboring populations even if no organism make large migrations

2

Darwin's term for the concept, illustrated by the only figure in The Origin of Species, that separate
lineages often accumulate differences from their common ancestor and from each other.

divergence of character (also accept divergence or gradual change)

3

average excess

a quantitative-genetic parameter that assigns a "phenotype" to a gamete

4

(T or F) In large, randomly-mating populations, linkage disequilibria are unlikely to occur between loci located more than 1 cM apart on a linkage map

True

5

Indicate whether the statement applies to the biological species concept, the phylogenetic species concept, neither/both:

Allopatric speciation is a means by which multiplication of species occurs.

both biological and phylogenetic species concepts

6

(T or F) given the following values of average excess for hemoglobin A, C and S alleles in a particular population, only the A allele is expected to increase frequency by natural selection in the next generation: a_A=-0.001. a_s=0.081. a_c=0.015

False- The A allele should decrease slighty and the other two alleles should increase in frequency

7

Normal Distribution

is specified by two numbers

8

heritability

the portion of phenotypic variance due to variation in breeding values

9

(T or F) Haplotype trees provide useful information for reconstructing the history of population structure, such as the relative importance of isolation by distance, recent range expansions, and long-distance migrations in human evolutionary history.

True

10

A measured phenotype for which alleles HbA and HbS of b hemoglobin are codominant

electrophoretic mobility

11

Indicate whether the statement applies to the biological species concept, the phylogenetic species concept, neither/both:

The formal species concept has an explicit temporal dimension.

phylogenetic species concept only

12

coronary artery disease (CAD)

No single genetic or environmental factor is both necessary and sufficient for producing a particular quantitative phenotype

13

average excess

the response to natural selection is determined by this quantity for the phenotype of fitness

14

deme

⁃ the lowest biological level that can evolve

15

A taxonomist studying the geographical distributions of rodent species observes that the closest relative
of any particular species tends to be located in a nearby region separated by a geographic barrier.

allopatric speciation (also accept multiplication of species)

16

scurvy

an environmental disease caused by homozygosity for a defective allele responding to a particular diet

17

An investigator conducts behavioral experiments to determine whether reproductive isolation between two salamander species results from evolutionary changes in mating rituals

prezygotic (reproductive) barrier

18

phenylketonuria

illustrates inheritance of a response to dietary environment

19

Bonellia

Environment rather than genotype determines sexual phenotype

20

polymorphism

⁃ more than one common form in population

21

Indicate whether the statement applies to the biological species concept, the phylogenetic species concept, neither/both:

Occupying a specific niche in nature is an explicit part of the species definition.

biological species concept only

22

multiplication of species

⁃ Of the 5 Darwinian theories identified by Ernst Mayr, this one states that geographically isolated populations of a species can evolve to become separate species
⁃ illustrated by the observation "isolated oceanic islands often have native species found nowhere else."

23

Natural selection

a force that can prevent evolution in a genetically variable population

24

The population of potential gametes that can be produced by the individuals of a deme

gene pool

25

uniformitarianism

⁃ explains earth's geological history using laws of chemistry and physics observed today

26

What are the three properties of DNA that underlie the physical basis of evolution?

⁃ DNA can replicate
⁃ DNA can mutate and recombine
⁃ DNA encodes information that interacts with the environment to influence phenotype

27

HbS/HbS

Yields severe anemia in some genetic background but not others

28

u

Symbol for mutation rate or parametric mean

29

PKU

an inherited enzyme deficiency that interacts with diet to cause mental retardation

30

expected coalescence time

can vary from locus to locus depending upon which chromosome the locus is located

31

The minimum number of measurements needed for a mathematical model to explain the behavior of a biological system

sufficient parameters

32

sickle-cell anemia

⁃ a complex, polygenic disease

33

(T or F) If a trait is highly heritable in two different populations, then the difference between those populations for the trait is largely genetically determined.

False- Heritability is defined only within populations and does not measure genetic bases of interpopulational variation.

34

identity by descent

Coalescence of homologous DNA with no intervening mutation

35

Ernst Mayr's term for the Darwinian theory that explains the geographic dimension of evolution

multiplication of species

36

General term for a trait co-opted for a biological role not present at the trait's origin

exaptation

37

(T or F)Haplotype trees are a crucial means of analysis for explaining linkage disequilibria occurring among sites within a small chromosomal region in which crossing-over is rare or nonexistent

True

38

Supposed you have a histogram depicting the expected frequency of genotypes from a situation where trichome number is determined by two genes, N and T, and where the capital allele for each contributes "one unit" to trichome number, but a lowercase allele contributes nothing.

How does the histogram look if upper and lower case alleles were equally frequent in the population? If the lower case were more frequent? If more genes were involved in determining trichome number (assuming upper and lower case alleles are equally frequent in the population)?

1) normal bell curve (std. normal distribution)
2) bars are shifted to the left (smaller trichome #)
3) more bars are on the histogram (larger spread)--center (mean) stays the same.

39

environmental factors

can strongly influence an individual phenotype regardless of heritability

40

founder effect

used in the successful positional cloning of the gene for Huntington's disease

41

genotypic deviation

the mean phenotype of a genotype minus the population mean

42

measured genotype approach

candidate loci are an example

43

Indicate whether the statement applies to the biological species concept, the phylogenetic species concept, neither/both:

Several diagnosably distinct lineages of ancestral-descendant populations are recognized collectively
as a single species because the populations would likely interbreed were they not geographically
separated.

biological species concept only

44

fitness

measures successful DNA replication

45

Tay-Sachs Disease

a non-heritable disease in most human populations

46

norm of reaction

a range of phenotypes associated with a particular genotype in interaction with diverse environmental and genetic backgrounds

47

(T or F) A high heritability for a trait indicates that the environment has relatively little importance in determining the mean value of that trait in the population

False- Environmental factors may greatly alter mean values in a population without altering heritability

48

phylogeny or phylogenetic tree

⁃ A branching tree showing the ancestor-descendant relationships among species or populations

49

evolution as such

Ernst Mayr's term for the most general theory of evolution, used by Darwin but not original with him, that the world is neither constant nor perpetually cycling but is steadily and perhaps directionally changing

50

Lemba

Y-chromosomal haplotypes and mitochondrial-DNA haplotypes coalesce to different geographic populations

51

biological species concept

A reproductive community of populations (reproductively isolated from others) that occupies a specific niche (the set of resources actually or potentially used by a species) in nature

52

Indicate whether the statement applies to the biological species concept, the phylogenetic species concept, neither/both:

The formal species concept denotes a lineage of ancestor-descendant populations.

phylogenetic species concept only

53

(T or F) The Tay-Sachs disease is not heritable in the human population because there is no additive genetic variance for this trait.

True

54

(T or F) Haplotype trees provide critical information needed to explain patterns of linkage equilibrium versus linkage disequilibrium observed amonge SNP markers within a candidate locus, such as ApoE.

True

55

(T or F) The hemoglobin A and S alleles form a balanced polymorphism in central African populations because the heterozygous genotype has a high fitness than the alternative AA and SS genotypes in a Malarial environment

True

56

Evolutionary activation of a complex developmental module (such as the one described in part a )by a single mutation rather than in small phenotypical increments summed across generations challenges which of Darwin's "five" theories?

gradualism

57

(T or F) In some middle-eastern populations, persistence of fetal hemoglobin interacts epistatically with the homozygous hemoglobin S genotype to alleviate the anemia associated with that genotype in other genetic backgrounds

True

58

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

⁃ a mathematical model in which copies of homologous DNA are drawn at random in pairs from the gene pool

59

Analysis of the structures and evolutionary histories of bat wings and bird wings indicates that they are not homologous as wings, and that their wing structures are only superficially similar.

convergence

60

The kind of chromosomal evolutionary change needed to derive the human karyotype from one characteristic of other apes

fusion or chromosomal fusion (or description that material from two separate ape chromosomes is combined as a single human chromosome)

61

additive genotypic deviation

sum of the average excesses of both alleles borne by a diploid organism in a population

62

(T or F) The expected coalescence time for all copies of homologous DNA for this locus in the human population would be 4N generations, where N is the number of living individuals

True

63

broad-sense heritability

can never be less than the narrow-sense heritability

64

Indicate whether the statement applies to the biological species concept, the phylogenetic species concept, neither/both:

Reproductive isolation from other species is an explicit part of the species definition.

biological species concept only

65

linkage disequilibrium

non-random association between alleles at different loci in the gene pool

66

neutral allele

evolutionary fate is a function of mutation and genetic drift

67

General term for a post-mating reproductive barrier in which offspring of cross-species matings are viable and healthy but incapable of sexual reproduction

hybrid sterility

68

lupus

an autoimmune disease shown to have a genetic component via linkage mapping

69

system of mating

⁃ the rules at the level of the deme by which gametes are united in fertilization

70

cladogram

⁃ a tree diagram that presents the nested hierarchy of clades diagnosed by the sharing of homologies across species but whose branches are not interpreted as evolutionary lineages
⁃ An "operational" tree diagram used to denote the nested hierarchy of synapomorphies for a set of species, and whose branches need not represent evolutionary lineages.

71

phenylketonuria

caused by a rare genotype interacting with a common dietary condition

72

Fst among human populations

is approximately 0.15 on a worldwide basis

73

analysis of variance

Categorize individuals and then compare differences among individuals within versus between the categories

74

genetic drift

a force that cause all genetically variable populations to evolve

75

A human genetic disease for which all genetic variance is dominance variance

Tay-Sachs disease or phenylketonuria

76

neutrality theory

explains why the pseudogene for beta hemoglobin evolves more rapidly than the active gene

77

Indicate whether the statement applies to the biological species concept, the phylogenetic species concept, neither/both:

Species diagnosis often relies on documenting patterns of morphological, chromosomal and/or molecular variation, which should be continuous within and discontinuous between species.

both biological and phylogenetic species concepts

78

Fossil data show that feathers evolved prior to flight in bird ancestry, rejecting the hypothesis that feathers are an adaptation to flight and suggesting that feathers were co-opted for flight following their origin as thermoregulatory structures.

exaptation

79

Variational theory

Darwinian evolution is a populational process operating on hereditary differences among organisms within a population

80

hemoglobin C

a recessive allele for malarial resistance

81

Bonellia

a larva consumed by a female worm is induced to become a parasitic male gonad

82

homoplasy

⁃ character-state changes on a phylogeny exceed the number of derived character states

83

A source of allopatry of populations in which formation of a geological barrier subdivides a formerly continuous population.

vicariance

84

A lineage of ancestral -descendant populations diagnosably distinct from other such lineages

phylogenetic species concept

85

evolutionary force

any force or process that alters the frequency of an allele in the gene pool

86

A very common disease considered genetic because of high heritability but for which no single genetic factor is either necessary of sufficient

coronary artery disease

87

monophyletic group (clade)

⁃ includes the most recent common ancestor of the included species and all descendants of that ancestor

88

Hardy-Weinberg Law

allows genotype frequencies to be predicted from allele frequencies

89

(T or F) A trait must be inherited to be heritable, but the reverse is not true.

True

90

Daniel Dennett

Describes evolution by natural selection as an algorithm operating on chance to produce order

91

gene pool

population of gene copies collectively shared by the individuals of a deme

92

broad-sense heritability

the proportion of the phenotypic variance explained by genotypic variation

93

isolation by distance

a model of gene flow that fits well to the human data

94

linkage disequilibrium

is high in founder populations

95

vicariance

⁃ illustrated by sea-urchin populations geographically separated by the Isthmus of Panama

96

(T or F) Genome scans for chromosomal locations of quantitative-trait loci using SNP markers rely upon occurrence of linkage disequilibria between quantitative trait loci and genetically SNP loci

True

97

environmental variance

the component of phenotypic variance not explained by genotypic variation

98

breeding value

additive genotypic deviation

99

polygenic inheritance

⁃ helps to reconcile Mendelian heredity and continuously varying phenotypes
⁃ ADDITIVE polygenic inheritance guarantees additivity of population-level variance for associated phenotypes

100

parsimony

⁃ The general methodological principle that the best working hypothesis is the simplest one capable of explaining the existing observations
⁃ illustrated by a claim that if "silent" substitutions in a DNA sequence can be explained as neutral variation, we would not test the more complicated hypothesis that natural selection maintains this variation in a population.

101

When asked to estimate the mutation rate of a gene associated with a human disease, an investigator inquires whether the desired rate is for origin of harmful phenotypes or total base substitution measured at the DNA-sequence level

complementarity principle or complementarity

102

breeding value

a synonym for additive genotypic deviation

103

Lemba

an example of male specific gene flow

104

environmental variance

phenotypic variation not explained by genotypic variation in Fisher's simple additive genetic model

105

gene flow

increase genetic variability within demes, and decreases genetic differences between demes

106

natural selection

can be defined genetically as heritable variation in fitness

107

scurvy

disease arising from the interaction of homozygosity for an allele coding for a non-functional protein with a specific dietary environment in which diet is the primary cause of variation

108

Kind of genetic variance contributed by a rare dominant allele present only in heterozygous genotypes in a population

additive

109

Name for the Darwinian theory that hypothesizes struggle for existence and preferential survival of individuals that possess the most favorable traits

natural selection

110

(T or F) Variable genetic markers that are closely linked (within 1 cM of each other) almost always show high linkage disequilibrium

False- A figure shown in lecture depicting levels of linkage disequilibria between pairs of SNP markers from a Costa Rican founder population showed that only a fraction of the closely linked markers showed high linkage disequilibrium. Also, the variable sites within the apoE gene region are tightly linked but not all pairs of sites showed high linkage disequilibrium.

111

DNA coalescence

⁃ the time inverse of DNA replication
≝ Denotes the tracing of all copies of homologous DNA to a common ancestral molecule present in an ancestral population (also known as coalescence or GENE TREE).

112

Indicate whether the statement applies to the biological species concept, the phylogenetic species concept, neither/both:

Vicariance can lead to multiplication of species

both biological and phylogenetic species concepts

113

range expansion

a haplotype can be found far from the geographical center of its ancestral haplotype

114

Comparative studies of vertebrate development indicate that a caudal developmental module was recruited for evolution of paired pectoral and pelvic appendages in an ancestor of quadrupedal vertebrates.

heterotopy (An exception to Haeckel's biogenetic law featuring evolutionary change in the physical location of a developmental proeess within the body.)

115

linkage disequilibrium

occurs when the nucleotide state at one polymorphic nucleotide site is preferentially associated with the nucleotide state at a second polymorphic nucleotide site in a population

116

Skodak and Skeels

authors of a study showing that the environment can strongly influence IQ score

117

hemoglobin S allele

a recessive allele for viability in non-malarial regions

118

algorithm

⁃ characterized by substrate neutrality, mindless operation, and guaranteed results

119

measured genotype approach

qiantitative genetic studies using saturated genome-wide linkage mapping, candidate loci, or a combination of these methods

120

reversal

Homoplasy involving evolutionary return to an ancestral character formerly changed or lost

121

Indicate whether the statement applies to the biological species concept, the phylogenetic species concept, neither/both:

Members of a single genetic population would be placed in different species if they show variation for a gene having a large effect on the phenotype.

neither biological nor phylogenetic species concepts

122

(Darwinian) gradualism

⁃ large morphological changes require many generations of evolution
⁃ accumulation of small changes across generations leads to qualitative change

123

QTL

a genomic region associated with phenotypic variation by linkage to markers

124

Relationship between characteristics considered equivalent because they descend, with or without modification, from a common ancestral one

homology

125

reproductive barrier

Often results from divergence of character between allopatric popualtion that have been separated fro several million years

126

(T or F) At a selective equilibrium in central African populations, the hemoglobin A and C alleles occur at frequencies of 0.89 and 0.11 respectively.

False- This equilibrium pertains to the A and S alleles, not C

127

evolution

a change in gamete frequency

128

Galapagos island mockingbirds illustrate what concept

allopatric speciation by founder event

129

An investigator tests the hypothesis that differences in mating vocalizations of two closely related frog species evolved by natural selection to prevent interspecies mating that would yield inviable offspring.

reinforcement

130

genetic variation within demes

decreased by drift

131

A character that arose by natural selection for a currently observed biological role

adaptation

132

A population of salamanders that retains an aquatic larval morphology throughout life is inferred to have
evolved from metamorphosing forms by decreasing the rate of somatic development relative to attainment
of sexual maturity

heterochrony

133

At a site in aligned homologous DNA sequences of humans and apes, homoplastic sharing of a derived
state by humans and orangs is attributed to separate substitutions occurring in their terminal lineages.

parallelism (homoplasy in which lineages diverge from their common ancestor but not from each other)

134

environmental variance

the proportion of population phenotypic variation not explained by modeled genetic variation for a quantitative trait

135

norm of reaction

Acid phosphatase genotype A/A shows a range of enzymatic activities measured from blood of different individuals with this genotype

136

An investigator conducting a molecular phylogenetic analysis of birds adds a crocodilian sample to the
analysis to permit determining character polarity and rooting the bird phylogenetic tree.

outgroup or outgroup comparison

≝ In phylogenetic analysis, a species or taxon that is related to a group being studied and used to determine ancestral versus derived states of characters that vary in the study group.

137

Bonellia

Asexual larva consumed by an adult female becomes a parasitic male gonad

138

To test the hypothesis that a brightly colored pattern on a snake species evolved to deter bird predators, a researcher makes clay models of the snake, half of which contain the bright colors and haIf of which do not The models are placed in typical snake habitats, and the attacks by birds are recorded for each type by counting beak marks on the clay specimens.

natural selection

139

candidate locus

a gene whose known function is related to a specific phenotype

140

phylogenetic species concept

A lineage of ancestral-descendant population diagnosably distinct from other such lineages

141

Daniel Dennett's term for a process, such as natural selection, characterized by substrate neutrality, underlying mindlessness, and guaranteed results

algorithm

142

Names of two procedures used to identify chromosomal regions that contain QTLs for a disease phenotype

genome scan and genome wide association study (gwas)

143

broad-sense heritability

measures the importance of genetic variation as a contributor to phenotypic variation within a generation

144

DNA samples are collected throughout the geographic range of a salamander species to measure geographic genetic differentiation of populations. The results reveal that this species comprises several geographically distinct population lineages.

multiplication of species

145

gene flow

increase genetic variation within demes and decreases differences between demes

146

Apoprotein E

can bind to the LDL-receptor protein

147

A broad category of reproductive barriers in which hybrid offspring are inviable or sterile, or second-generation offspring suffer these problems

postzygotic (barrier)

148

developmental module

Activation at an atypical location within the body might yield a "hopeful monster"

149

neutral mutations

their rate of evolution equals their mutation rate

150

algorithm

Exhibits substrate neutrality, mindlessness ,and guaranateed results

151

0.003

expected equilibrium frequency of an allele for a recessive lethal disease in humans

152

natural selection

⁃ Of the 5 Darwinian theories identified by Ernst Mayr, this one provides a nonteleological mechanism for
evolution of adaptive characteristics

153

identity by descent

⁃ The population-genetic principle denoting coalescence of copies of homologous DNA without intervening mutation

154

Indicate whether the statement applies to the biological species concept, the phylogenetic species concept, neither/both:

Species exist only in groups of organisms that have sexual reproduction.

biological species concept only

155

A source of allopatry of populations caused by rare dispersal of a few organisms across a pre-existing, strong geographic barrier.

founder event

156

exaptation

⁃ illustrated by the utility of bird feathers for flight
≝ a trait coopted by natural selection for a role incidental to the trait's origin

157

fetal hemoglobin gene

shows epistasis with the beta globin gene for the sickling trait

158

haplotype tree or allele tree

⁃ A tree diagram (either rooted or unrooted) whose branches represent mutational steps connecting different variant forms of homologous DNA

159

Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection

Rate of evolution by selection equals the additive genetic variance in fitness of a population

160

isolation by distance

Geographic distance among populations is the best predictor of their amount of genetic divergence

161

mean and variance

together describe a normal distribution

162

Average of squared differences of individual phenotypes from the population mean

variance

163

reinforcement

In speciation theory, the controversial claim that premating reproductive barriers can evolve by natural selection to prevent interbreeding between two populations whose initial divergence features only postmating reproductive barriers.

164

Comparisons of the forelimbs of various mammals reveal that all have a proximal long bone, called a
humerus, despite some variation in its exact form and function.

homology

165

analysis of variance

⁃ first step is to subtract the population mean from each individual's phenotypic value for a quantitative trait

166

random mutations or randomness of mutations

New genetic variants that arise in a population can have a wide variety of phenotypic consequences that
are not necessarily beneficial to the affected organisms

167

additive polygenic inheritance

Guarantees additivity of population-level variance for associated phenotypes

168

To test support for a branch in a parsimony tree, an investigator samples sites from the alignment with replacement to generate 1,000 synthetic data sets equal in size to the original one, applies parsimony analysis to each new data set, and finds the percentage of resulting trees that contain the clade in question.

bootstrap or bootstrapping

169

"non-Darwinian evolution"

the hypothesis that most evolutionary changes in DNA and protein sequences occur by random genetic drift of selectively neutral alleles

170

(T or F ) Haplotype trees were important for determining that in central African populations occupying malarial environments, the equilibrium frequencies of the Hb A and Hb S alleles are 0.89 and 0.11, respectively.

False- These equilibrium frequencies were calculated from average excesses of the Hb A and Hb S alleles, not haplotype trees.

171

homology or homologies

⁃ Features of different organisms that are considered equivalent because of their evolutionary derivation from a common ancestral form
⁃ denotes forms derived from an equivalent characteristic of a common evolutionary ancestor
⁃ originally defined by Owen as "the same organ in different organisms under every variety of form and funetion"

172

phenotypic correlation

a method for estimating quantitative genetic parameters

173

phenotypic correlation between sibs

greater than or equal to half the heritability

174

teleology

⁃ rejected by Darwin's theory of natural selection

175

complementarity principle

a scientific explanation often requires separate mathematical descriptions of topology and rate-dependent dynamics

176

X-linked DNA

coalesceses more rapidly than autosomal DNA

177

HT

probability that a pair of gametes sampled at random from a total population contains two different alleles at a particular locus

178

gene pool

the population of potential gametes of a deme

179

(T or F) populations that have undergone a recent bottleneck in size, including founder events, often have higher average levels of linkage disequilibrium than their larger source populations because of the consequences of genetic drift for haplotype frequencies

True

180

abstraction + simplification

identify the essential aspects of reality and remove distracting elements in constructing a mathematical model

181

clade

a group of species diagnosed but not defined by shared homologies

182

Offspring resemble their parents more closely than they do individuals drawn at random from the population for phenotypic deviations from their respective population means

heritability

183

deme

Local population that has continuity over space and time

184

exaptation

Pertains to the utility of feathers in avian flight

185

fetal hemoglobin

Postnatal gene expression alleviates anemia in people homozygous for the sickle-cell allele of b-hemoglobin

186

hopeful monster

A single mutation produces a large phenotypic change that is potentially beneficial to the possessor

187

identity by descent

Coalescence of gene lineages without mutation

188

industrial melanism

Moth populations show distinctly contrasting light and dark forms, with the dark form becoming most common in polluted areas

189

mutation-selection equilibrium

Causes a lethal recessive allele to persist at a frequency of ~0.003 in a randomly mating population

190

norm of reaction

Measured for all contrasting genotypes in a measured-genotype analysis of quantitative-trait variation

191

SNP

Used as genomic markers in genome scans and genome-wide association studies (GWAS)

192

subjectivity

Aspect of science including an investigator's hypotheses and choice of parameters to be measured

193

temporal isolation

Pre-zygotic reproductive barrier in which contrasting populations flower at different times of the year

194

vicariance

Geogrphic isolation caused by a new barrier dividing a formerly continuous habitat

195

(identify the major concept ) Serum cholesterol for humans heterozygous for the 3 and 4 alleles at the ApoE locus ranges from 100 to 260millgrams per deciliter of serum

norm of reaction or environmental variation for measured genotype

196

(identify the major concept ) Any locus whose variation makes some contribution to populational variation in a continuously varying phenotype

QTL ( quantitative trait locus)

197

(identify the major concept ) Most parsimonious explanation for the observation that genetic variation is generally very low in cheetah populations

population-size bottleneck

198

(identify the major concept ) High levels of these two factors in a population, both caused by a recent past founder event, make the population a good candidate for a genome scan to find the chromosomal location of a locus associated with a disease

linkage disequilibrium and disease incidence

199

(identify the major concept ) A pedigree-based method for identifying chromosomal regions containing genes whose variation influences incidence of Lupus in humans

genome scan

200

(identify the major concept ) A method for identifying chromosomal regions containing genes whose variation influences a disease phenotype by using millions of genetic markers scored for hundreds or thousands of individuals who have the disease and who do not have the disease

genome wide association study or GWAS

201

(identify the major concept ) Method using a haplotype tree for a candidate gene locus to test he hypothesis , for each base-pair substitution at the locus, that the substitution has important phenotypic consequences

tree scan

202

(identify the major concept ) component of genetic variance present in a population polymorhic for the lethal Tay-Sachs allele

dominance variance of nonadditive variance

203

(identify the major concept ) Evolutionary force that introduces genetic variation into a large population but does not make large changes in allelic frequency within the population

mutation

204

(identify the major concept ) Evolutionary force that is as likely to increase as to decrease the frequency of a particular allele in a genetically isolated population

genetic drift or random genetic drift

205

(identify the major concept ) Most general term for a procedure in which an investigator groups individuals into categories, measures variation among individuals within the categories, measures average differences between the categories, and calculates the relative magnitudes of the two sets of measurement

analysis of variance

206

(identify the major concept ) A particular human population has a frequency of 0.10 for ApoE allele 4 and a frequency of 0.80 for LDLR allele A2. If you were to conduct a measured genotype approach to calculate heritability of serum cholesterol level from one of these loci alone, which one would you choose and why?

ApoE, because populational variation tracks the rarer of the interacting causal factors

207

(identify the major concept ) A human disease generally considered dietary in origin because the genotype associated with it is common, whereas the dietary condition associated with it is rare

scurvy

208

(identify the major concept ) Long term rate of evolution equals the mutation rate producing this kind variation

neutral alleles

209

(identify the major concept ) A nonfunctional duplicate copy of a gene whose rate of evolution typically exceeds that of the functional copy

pseudogene