Flashcards in Larynx Deck (52):
What does the larynx connect?
lower part of pharynx to trachea
What are the functions of the larynx?
prevents passage of food into the airway during swallowing, regulates the flow of air into lungs, and functions in vocalization
Between what vertebral levels does the larynx lie?
C3 and C6
What are the parts of the thyroid cartilage?
superior thyroid notch, inferior thyroid notch, Laryngeal prominence, superior horn, inferior horn, laminae, and oblique line
What is the most inferior cartilage of the larynx?
What is the lower end of the epiglottic cartilage attached to?
laryngeal prominence by the thyroepiglottic ligament
What are the paired cartilages that articulate with the cricoid cartilage?
What are the parts of the arytenoid cartilages?
vocal process: attaches the vocal ligament
muscular process: attaches the intrinsic muscles of larynx
What are the paired cartilages that lie on the apices of the arytenoid cartilage and are closed within the aryepiglottic folds?
What are the paired cartilages that lie in the aryepiglottic folds anterior to the corniculate cartilages?
What two cartilages can ossify and be mistaken for fractures?
corniculate and cuneiform cartilages
What synovial joint of the larynx is between the side of the cricoid cartilage and the inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage?
What does the cricothyroid cartilage permit?
rotation of the thyroid cartilage around a horizontal axis
What synovial joint of the larynx is between the upper border of the cricoid cartilage and the base of the arytenoid cartilage?
What does the cricoarytenoid joint permit?
gliding and rotation of the arytenoid cartilage on the cricoid cartilage
What ligament of the larynx extends from the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone?
What pierces the thyrohyoid membrane?
internal laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal vessels
What ligament of the larynx extends from the arch of the cricoid cartilage to the thryoid cartilage?
median cricothyroid ligament
What ligament of the larynx extends from the thyroid cartilage in front to the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage behind?
What fibroelastic membrane extends upward from the cricoid cartilage to the vocal ligament?
Conus Elasticus (circovocal membrane, lateral cricothyroid ligament)
What connects the epiglottic cartilage to the arytenoid cartilage on each side?
What are the two parts to the Quadrangular Membrane?
Superior Margin: forms the aryepiglottic ligament within the aryepiglottic fold
Inferior margin: forms the vestubular ligament within the vestibular fold
What does the vestubular folds do?
protective in function and initiates cough reflex (false vocal cords)
What do the vocal folds do?
actively vibrate to produce sound (true vocal cords)
What is the space between the vestibular folds
What is the space between the vocal folds?
What includes the rima glottidis and the vocal folds?
What extends from the laryngeal inlet to the vestibular folds?
What lies between the vestibular folds and vocal folds?
What extends from the vocal folds to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage?
What is a small diverticulum within the laryngeal ventricle?
In hoarseness due to excessive speaking or singing, lubricant from the laryngeal saccule is temporarily depleted and causes what?
laryngitis (inflammation of vocal cords)
What are the elevators of the larynx?
thyrohyoid, stylohyoid, mylohyoid, digrastric, stylopharyngeus, palatopharyngeus
What are the depressors of the larynx?
Omohyoid, sternohyoid, and sternothyroid
What are intrinsic muscles of the larynx important for?
What is the only intrinsic muscle of the larynx you can see from the outside?
What does the cricothyroid muscle do?
tilts thryoid cartilage downward or cricoid cartilage upward therby tensing the vocal cords (raises pitch of voice)
What is the cricothyroid muscle innervated by?
External laryngeal nerve
What does the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle do?
abducts the vocal cords
What nerve innervates all of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles besides the cricothyroid muscle?
recurrent laryngeal nerve
What is the neutral position of the vocal cords and what does it allow?
partially abducted, allows breathing when muscles are paralyzed and reduces risk of suffocation
What is the whisper muscle and what does it do?
lateral cricoarytenoid muscle; adducts the vocal cords
What are the couphing and sneezing muscles and what do they do?
transverse arytenoid and oblique arytenoid muscles; adducts vocal cords
What muscle is active during swallowing in the larynx?
aryepiglottic muscle; closes the laryngeal inlet
what muscle is a continuation of the oblique arytenoid and lies within the aryepiglottic fold?
what muscle deepens the voice and lowers its pitch?
What muscle prevents monotone and "fine-tunes" the voice and what does it do?
vocalis muscle; adjusts tension on the vocal cords during phonation
What determines voice dimorphism?
length of vocal cords, size of resonating chamber, and thickness of vocal cords (responds to androgens)
What is the most important nerve of the larynx?
recurrent laryngeal nerve
What is does the recurrent laryngeal nerve sense?
mucosa of the larynx below vocal fold
What nerve is sensory to the mucosa of larynx above the vocal folds?
internal laryngeal nerve