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Flashcards in Larynx Deck (12):
1

LARYNX
- opens above into the laryngeal part of the _________ and below is continuous with _________
- lies at the level of _________ vertebrae
- 3 unpaired, 3 paired cartilages

LARYNX
- opens above into the laryngeal part of the pharynx and below is continuous with trachea
- lies at the level of C4-C6 vertebrae

2

UNPAIRED LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES
Thyroid - largest; two laminae of _______ cartilage that meet in the midline (Adam's apple); level of C__
Cricoid - shaped like a signet ring; ________ cartilage; level of C__
Epiglottis - leaf-shaped lamina of ________ cartilage; lies behind the root of the ________

PAIRED LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES
___________ - pyramid-shaped; located at the back of the larynx
___________ - small rod-shaped
___________ - small conical-shaped

UNPAIRED LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES
Thyroid - largest; two laminae of hyaline cartilage that meet in the midline (Adam's apple); level of C5
Cricoid - shaped like a signet ring; hyaline cartilage; level of C6
Epiglottis - leaf-shaped lamina of elastic cartilage; lies behind the root of the tongue

PAIRED LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES
Arytenoid - pyramid-shaped; located at the back of the larynx
Cuneiform - small rod-shaped
Corniculate - small conical-shaped

3

MEMBRANES/LIGAMENTS OF THE LARYNX
Thyrohyoid membrane - pierced on each side by the __________ laryngeal vessels and ________ laryngeal nerve;
midline is thickened to form the thyrohyoid ligament
Cricotracheal ligament - connects the cricoid cartilage to the _______ ring of the trachea
________________________ - extends between the epiglottis and arytenoid cartilages; thickened inferior margin forms the ____________ ligament (forms the interior of the vestibular folds)
Cricothyroid ligament - lower margin is attached to the upper border of the cricoid cartilage; superior margin ascends on the medial surface of the thyroid cartilage; forms the _________ ligament on each side(forms the interior of the vocal folds/cords

MEMBRANES/LIGAMENTS OF THE LARYNX
Thyrohyoid membrane - pierced on each side by the superior laryngeal vessels and internal laryngeal nerve;
midline is thickened to form the thyrohyoid ligament
Cricotracheal ligament - connects the cricoid cartilage to the first ring of the trachea
Quadrangular membrane - extends between the epiglottis and arytenoid cartilages; thickened inferior margin forms the vestibular ligament (forms the interior of the vestibular folds)
Cricothyroid ligament - lower margin is attached to the upper border of the cricoid cartilage; superior margin ascends on the medial surface of the thyroid cartilage; forms the vocal ligament on each side(forms the interior of the vocal folds/cords

4

At the level of C__:
- cricoid cartilage
- start of trachea
- start of esophagus

6

5

The true vocal cords lie ___________ to the cricothyroid membrane.

superior

6

CRICOTHYROIDOTOMY
- Tube is inserted between the _______ and _______ cartilages
- Vertical incision is made through the following structures:
skin, superficial fascia, investing layer of deep cervical fascia, pretracheal fascia, larynx
- Complications: esophageal perforation and hemorrhage

CRICOTHYROIDOTOMY
- Tube is inserted between the cricoid and thyroid cartilages
- Vertical incision is made through the following structures: skin, superficial fascia, investing layer of deep cervical fascia, pretracheal fascia, larynx
- Complications: esophageal perforation and hemorrhage

7

LARYNGEAL FOLDS
_____________ Fold
- fixed; formed by mucous membrane covering the vestibular ligament
- vascular; pink in color
____________ Fold/Cord
- mobile; concerned with voice production
- formed by mucous membrane covering the vocal ligament
- avascular; white in color

LARYNGEAL FOLDS
Vestibular Fold
- fixed; formed by mucous membrane covering the vestibular ligament
- vascular; pink in color
Vocal Fold/Cord
- mobile; concerned with voice production
- formed by mucous membrane covering the vocal ligament
- avascular; white in color

8

BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE LARYNX
Upper half - superior laryngeal branch of the __________ thyroid artery
Lower half - inferior laryngeal branch of the __________ thyroid artery

LYMPH DRAINAGE
______________ group of LNs

BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE LARYNX
Upper half - superior laryngeal branch of the superior thyroid artery
Lower half - inferior laryngeal branch of the inferior thyroid artery

LYMPH DRAINAGE
Deep cervical group of LNs

9

SUPERIOR LARYNGEAL NERVE
1. _________ LN - sensory above vocal cord area
2. _________ LN - supplies the cricothyroid
INFERIOR/RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE
- motor to muscles of phonation except ____________
- sensory below vocal cord area

SUPERIOR LARYNGEAL NERVE
1. Internal LN - sensory above vocal cord area
2. External LN - supplies the cricothyroid
INFERIOR/RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE
- motor to muscles of phonation except cricothyroid
- sensory below vocal cord area

10

The __________ branch of the superior laryngeal nerve is intimately associated with the superior thyroid artery in relation to the superior pole of the thyroid gland, rendering it vulnerable to injury during the ligation of the artery during thyroidectomy.

external

11

Laryngeal muscle which acts as the chief tensor of the vocal cords: __________
Relaxor of the vocal cords: _________
Abductor of the vocal cords: __________ (most important to allow air movement through the larynx)
Adductor of the vocal cords: __________

Cricothyroid (THINK: Chief Tensor CricoThyroid)
Thyroarytenoid (THINK: Relaxor thyRoaRytenoid)
Posterior cricoarytenoid (THINK: PAb LAd)
Lateral cricoarytenoid (THINK: PAb LAd)

12

LARYNGEAL NERVE LESIONS
___________ laryngeal nerve lesions
- asymptomatic because fibers are mainly sensory
- if _________ branch is affected -> mild hoarseness or monotonous speech
__________ laryngeal nerve lesions
- result in fixed vocal cord paralysis and transient hoarseness
- ______ is injured more commonly - hooks around the ___________
- right - hooks around the ___________

LARYNGEAL NERVE LESIONS
Superior laryngeal nerve lesions
- asymptomatic because fibers are mainly sensory
- if external branch is affected -> mild hoarseness or monotonous speech
Recurrent laryngeal nerve lesions
- result in fixed vocal cord paralysis and transient hoarseness
- left is injured more commonly - hooks around the arch of aorta
- right - hooks around the subclavian artery