Late (Renaissance + Church) (c.1300-c.1500) Flashcards
What is Chris Wickham’s book called? What does he argue about government - specifically church government - during the 15th century Renaissance?
That the Council of Konstanza of 1414-18, a Christian (ecumenical) council, allowed for prelates to decide which direction the Western church was going.
What happened during the 15th century Renaissance regarding education? (name 2 things).
In the Italian cities in particular, having intellectual debate and a knowledge of the classics allowed for much patronage for the individual.
Printing quickly increased after 1450.
Give an example of the type of architecture emerging during the 15th century Renaissance.
Give 2 examples of how ideas of Renaissance and religion interconnected.
As part of a ‘new classical’ style, there was a piazza built for Pope Pius II.
- (See stuff on church government).
- Jan Hus of Bohemia, who criticised the wealth of the papacy, was burned for heresy. After he died, Wickham implies that the 15th century Renaissance was marked by religious insurrections by radicals, as he lists violent rebellion.
Wickham argues that what this Hussite movement revealed was how quickly ideas could now spread through Europe and that peasants were now involved in complex theological topics.
How does Robert Black argue that the 15th century Renaissance differed from previous Renaissances? Why arguably didn’t it?
Because it discarded Gothic elements of the 13th and 14th century Renaissances. But, Black says that writers still borrowed elements of the Carolingians from the 12th century.
Name 3 reasons for why Italy is significant regarding the Renaissance.
What does 15th century ‘Renaissance humanism’ mean?
Italy had been the centre of the Roman empire…ideas of rebirth of civilisation.
The Mediterranean linked Western Europe and the Middle East.
Italy was the centre of the Catholic church, which had some of the most educated people around.
An intellectual movement characterised by classical Latin, imitation of antiquity and the fine arts.
What’s Robert Swanson’s book on religion called?
What does Swanson argue were the two most vital features of religious life of laymen in the late middle ages? (hint - sacraments).
How could anticlericalism take root?
‘Religion and Devotion in Europe’.
The two most important sacraments were the Eucharist and Confession.
Swanson also argues that anticlericalism could point out the priest as the ‘God-maker’ from the Eucharist, while confession was crucial for the lay people as Christian mortality dictated casting away one’s sin.
Why does Swanson argue that saints were so important for lay people? (2 reasons + an example).
Swanson believes that there needed to be human figures for the lay people who could have God’s ear, as Jesus was far too remote.
Saints were seen as being able to give access to divine power.
(Offered solutions to certain problems, e.g. St Sebastian plague saint).
What was the Conciliar movement? Against who (and when) did they launch their arguments?
When was the Conciliar movement finally stamped out?
A 14th/15th century movement that held that the authority on all things spiritual were with a general Church council and not in the hands of the Papacy.
Used against Pope Julius II in 1509.
What did sermons reflect for the laity? What rhetoric did the Mendicants use? What does Swanson argue about this?
The sermons reflected the social concerns of the time. Mendicants actually used the rhetoric of contemporary economics, but Swanson argues that that reconciling money with God was just one aspect of preaching.
What increased during the 15th century? What did this allow for?
What is an example of a ‘doctrinal play’? What did it do?
Printing, allowing more books to be produced.
‘Creed Play’ - dwelt on the clauses of the Apostle’s Creed.
What were statues and images designed to be?
However, what does Swanson argue was not for doctrinal reasons, but to satisfy the believer?
Designed to be instructional and icons of saints emphasised Christian miracles.
Yet, Swanson argues that images of St Christopher in Toledo Spain were not there for doctrinal reasons, but to satisfy the believer.
How did stain glass educate believers?
Give an example of anticlericalism.
Acted as a way for people to learn Bible stories, 7 sacraments, etc.
English Lollardy from 1380 onwards.
What does ‘curia’ mean?
‘curia’ is the body of offices through which the Pope governs the Roman Catholic Church.
What was the Great Western Schism of 1378 a result of?
Why did the Papacy move to Avingon? What happened to the Papacy as a result? (Williman argument)
Two concurrent, flawed elections for the Pope that led to two rival Popes.
Pope Clement V (French) moved the Papacy to Avignon given his unpopularity in Rome and the factionalism that resided there.
Became stylistically militaristic - Williman argues that there were new autocratic powers like granting benefices to any kind of cleric.
Who were the two Popes? What did Romans beg for?
Who took the cardinals’ support away from Urban VI to Clement VII?
Urban VI of Rome and Clement VII of Avignon; they begged for an Italian over a French Pope.
Pierre de Cros.