Law Core Concepts & SKills 1 Flashcards Preview

Spring 4.2 > Law Core Concepts & SKills 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Law Core Concepts & SKills 1 Deck (17):

What are the common themes of patient/person centred care? (6)

1. Treating patients as people and as equal partners in decisions about their healthcare

2. Putting patients at the centre of all decisions

3. Respect for patient prefrences

4. Compasion, dignity and empathy

5. Support for self-care, enablement, autonomy and independence

6. Patient choice, control and influence


What are some examples of patient-centred healthcare in practice? (5)

1. Calling them by the name they prefer rather than by a name on an official document

2. Being asked to do something not TOLD

3. Being able to make informed choices

4. Being able to talk openly about their experiences of taking or not taking meds, their views of meds etc

5. Involving patients in decisions about their meds and self care


Describe the The Three-Function model for the medical interview

Cohen-Cole and Bird advocate:
1) a data-gathering phase (where the patient’s psychosocial context is considered),
2) a rapport-development phase,
3) an educational and motivational phase.

Thus, communication skills, empathy and involvement are prioritised over authority and paternalism.


Describe the steps in the The Calgary-Cambridge approach to consultations (6)

1. Initiating the session (establishing initial rapport and identifying the reasons for the consultation);

2. Gathering information (exploring the problem and understanding the patient’s perspective);

3. Providing structure to the consultation;

4. Building the relationship (using appropriate non-verbal cues, developing rapport and involving the patient);

5. Explanation and planning (providing the correct amount and type of information, aiding accurate recall and understanding, gaining a shared understanding by incorporating the patient’s perspective, and shared decision-making);

6. Closing the session (forward planning and appropriate closure)


What is Medicines Optimisation?

Is about ensuring patients get the best possible outcomes from their meds


Describe the goals of Medicines Optimisation (7)

Help patients to:
1. Improve their outcomes
2. Take their meds correctly
3. Improve adherence
4. Avoid taking unnecessary meds
5. Reduce wastage
6. Improve meds and patient safety

ULTIMATE GOAL: help encourage patients to take ownership of their treatment.


Medicines optimisation has patient-focused ( and holistic) approach.
What are the SEVEN elements of MO, including the FOUR principles?

Four principles:
1. Aim to understand patient's experience
2. Evidence-based choice of meds (clinically and cost-effective)
3. Ensure med use is as safe as possible (unwanted effects, interactions, safe processes and systems )
4. Make MO part of routine practice (health professionals discuss together and with patients)

- Measurement and monitoring
- Improved patient outcomes
- Patient focused approach


What is the NOW or NEVER : Shaping pharmacy for the future report?

The RPS launched a commission in Nov 2013 into the new models of care through pharmacy.
The report highlighted that ppl in England should expect pharmacists to offer more than just meds and they should have a more integrated role in the healthcare system.


What are the FIVE key campaigns that the RPS will pursue for the future of pharmacy?

1. Improving urgent and emergency care through
better use of pharmacists

2. Pharmacists and GP surgeries

3. Pharmacist access to the patient health record

4. Pharmacists improving care in care homes

5. Pharmacist-led care of people with long-term conditions.


A PROFESSION can be described as... (4)

1. An occupation recognised by the public

2. An occupation for which there is a recognised representative professional body

3. An occupation that benefits from professional standards and codes of conduct

4. An occupation that is regulated to ensure the maintenance of standards and codes of conduct


A PROFESSIONAL can be described as...

1. A member of a profession

2. A member of a professional body.

An individual who:
1. Behaves and acts professionally

2.Exercises professionalism and professional judgement

3. Has professional values, attitudes and behaviours.


Pharmacy professionalism can be defined as a set of values,
behaviours and relationships that underpin the trust the
public has in pharmacists.
Examples of these are: (9)

1. Altruism
2. Appropriate accountability
3. Compassion
4. Duty
5. Excellence and continuous improvement
6. Honour and integrity
7. Professional judgement
8. Respect for other patients, colleagues and other
healthcare professionals
9. Working in partnership with patients, doctors and the wider healthcare team in the patient’s/public’s
best interest.



Actual conflict of interest


Potential conflict of interest

Actual - when one or more interests materially conflict

Potential - where there is a possibility of a conflict between one or more interests in the future.


Give some examples of conflicts of interests

Having another job or receiving consultancy fees (i.e.having an outside employment) which impacts uponanother role

Receiving or being offered gifts from patients or
suppliers to the NHS or your employer

Receiving or being offered hospitality such as travel,
accommodation, meals or refreshments e.g. in relation
to attending a meeting, conference or training event

Receiving or being offered sponsorship for events,
research grants or posts

Owning shares in a company whose value could be
influenced by your role

Having an indirect interest or non-financial interest
e.g. If a spouse, close relative, business partner or closefriend has an interest

Receiving any other payments or ‘transfers of value’.


What is a declaration of interest?

It does not necessarily prevent an individual from carrying out a role, but it ensures that there can be no perception that they are seeking to influence
decisions improperly.


Describe what professional judgement is.

The use of accumulated knowledge and experience, as well as critical reasoning- to make an informed professional decision.

It takes into account the
- law
- ethical considerations
- relevant standards.


How do I exercise professional judgement?

1. Identify the ethical or professional issue

2. Gather relevant info - facts, knowledge, laws, standards etc

3. Identify all the possible options

4. Weigh up benefits and risks of each option

5. Choose an option. Important you can justify the decision you make

6. Record - the process and decision mafe