Ld. Test Questions, Vinification, Style, Quality Flashcards Preview

L. Test Questions > Ld. Test Questions, Vinification, Style, Quality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ld. Test Questions, Vinification, Style, Quality Deck (206):
1

In what style of wine do S02 levels tend to be the highest?
a) dry white wines with high acidity
b) rich and fruity red wines
c) sweet white wines

c) sweet white wines

2

What is Brettanomyces?
a) bacteria
b) spoilage yeast
c) cork taint

b) spoilage yeast

3

What does reduction smell like?
a) musty and damp cardboard
b) vinegar or nail polish remover
c) stinky rotten eggs and boiled cabbage.

c) stinky rotten eggs and boiled cabbage.

4

At what % is a wine considered to be medium minus alcohol?
a) under 10.5%
b) 13.5% - 14%
c) 10.5% - 11.5%

c) 10.5% - 11.5%

5

At what grams per litre of residual sugar is a wine considered to be sweet?
a) 18 g/l
b) 32 g/l
c) 45 g/l

c) 45 g/l

6

Which of the following grapes is considered to be aromatic?
a) Chardonnay
b) Muscat
c) Pinot Grigio

b) Muscat

7

Where do we look in a white wine to best assess the colour?
a) the rim
b) the core
c) in-between the rim and the core

b) the core

8

Which of the following chemical compounds is responsible for the bell pepper character in a
Sauvignon Blanc?
a) terpenes
b) pyrazines
c) esters

b) pyrazines

9

What is a hybrid grape?
a) cross of 2 vitis vinifera grapes
b) clone of a vitis vinifera grape
c) cross of vitus vinifera and another species of vitis .

c) cross of vitus vinifera and another species of vitis .

10

Which part of the vine is principally responsible for photosynthesis?
a) tendrils
b) leaves
c) buds

b) leaves

11

Which part of the vine is a cordon?
a) new shoots
b) arm of permanent wood
c) the buds

b) arm of permanent wood

12

What is the definition of a continental climate?
a) cool to moderate temperatures with low annual difference
b) greatest difference between the hottest and coldest months
c) low temperature difference between seasons with warm, dry summers.

b) greatest difference between the hottest and coldest months

13

What is the average temperature needed in the growing season for a vine to ripen grapes successfully?
a) 10 – 15°C
b) 16 – 21°C
c) 22 – 28°C

b) 16 – 21°C

14

What are the benefits of a soil with a high rock content?
a) able to retain moisture
b) vines grow with more vigour
c) ability to absorb and re-radiate the sun’s heat

c) ability to absorb and re-radiate the sun’s heat

15

What is needed for photosynthesis to occur?
a) oxygen and glucose
b) chlorophyll and sunlight combined with CO2 and water
c) chlorophyll and sunlight combined with oxygen and glucose

b) chlorophyll and sunlight combined with CO2 and water

16

Which climate category does Bordeaux fall under?
a) Maritime
b) Continental
c) Mediterranean

a) Maritime

17

Which climate category does Champagne fall under?
a) Maritime
b) Continental
c) Mediterranean

b) Continental

18

What climate category does Châteauneuf-du-Pape fall under?
a) Maritime
b) Continental
c) Mediterranean

c) Mediterranean

19

What is the name of the cooling current off the coast of Chile?
a) Benguela
b) Humboldt
c) Gulf Stream

b) Humboldt

20

What is an ideal soil type for viticulture?
a) dense black soil that is rich with an excess of nutrients
b) moist soil that retains water with very high levels of nitrogen
c) a soil with relatively few nutrients and good drainage

c) a soil with relatively few nutrients and good drainage

21

Which type of soil is associated with chlorosis in a vine?
a) limestone
b) clay
c) sand

a) limestone

22

How many buds are retained with spur pruning?
a) 2 - 3
b) 4 - 7
c) 7 – 9

a) 2 - 3

23

What are “Big Vines”?
a) very old vines
b) vines that are very tall
c) vines that have a lot of permanent wood and cover a large area

c) vines that have a lot of permanent wood and cover a large area

24

What is Pierce’s Disease?
a) fatal bacterial disease
b) a fungal disease that thrives in warm, humid conditions
c) a disease spread by nematodes

a) fatal bacterial disease

25

What is the treatment for Downy Mildew?
a) sulphur-based spray
b) copper-based spray (Bordeaux mixture)
c) vines must be dug up

b) copper-based spray (Bordeaux mixture)

26

What are nematodes?
a) a fungal disease that likes humid conditions
b) microscopic worms that attack the roots of a vine
c) a root louse with a very complex life cycle that can destroy the vine

b) microscopic worms that attack the roots of a vine

27

What is meant by a high input vineyard site?
a) excess use of fertilizer and spraying
b) site has plenty of water, sunlight, heat and nutrients
c) the vine has very little resources and needs help

b) site has plenty of water, sunlight, heat and nutrients

28

Which is caused by the same fungus as Grey Rot?
a) Downy Mildew
b) Powdery Mildew
c) Noble Rot

c) Noble Rot

29

What is the most effective solution used to protect the grapes from birds and mammals?
a) scare crows
b) netting
c) shooting

b) netting

30

What is the principal advantage of machine harvesting?
a) speed
b) very little damage to the grapes
c) stalks are retained

a) speed

31

When does flowering and fruit set occur in the Northern Hemisphere?
a) March - April
b) May - June
c) July – September

b) May - June

32

Higher temperatures during fermentation can result in:
a) the development of fruity esters
b) the development of savory aromas
c) the development of high acidity levels

b) the development of savory aromas

33

When does the pumping over process occur in winemaking?
a) before fermentation
b) during fermentation
c) after fermentation

b) during fermentation

34

What is the temperature range for a fermenting red wine?
a) 12 – 22°C
b) 20 – 32°C
c) 28 – 42°C

b) 20 – 32°C

35

Which method produces the most delicately coloured rosé?
a) blending
b) drawing off
c) direct pressing

c) direct pressing

36

What is the dominant acid in grapes?
a) tartaric
b) malic
c) lactic

a) tartaric

37

How does a pneumatic press work?
a) screw turned to apply vertical pressure
b) rubber bladder that expands when filled with air to apply pressure
c) screws turned at either end of a horizontal cylinder to apply pressure

b) rubber bladder that expands when filled with air to apply pressure

38

How can a winemaker inhibit the ambient yeast population?
a) use SO2
b) chill to below 5°C
c) raise the temperature to above 38°C

a) use SO2

39

What style of wine does carbonic maceration produce?
a) rich in fruit, firm tannins, flavours of chocolate and black cherry
b) soft and fruity, low in tannins, kirsh and bubblegum notes
c) soft and fruity, medium tannins, flavours of blackberry and leather

b) soft and fruity, low in tannins, kirsh and bubblegum notes

40

In which wine is carbonic maceration commonly used?
a) Beaujolais
b) Bordeaux
c) Burgundy

a) Beaujolais

41

Which method cannot be used to make still rosé in the EU?
a) direct pressing
b) saignée (bleeding)
c) blending

c) blending

42

When does the malolactic fermentation take place?
a) during fermentation
b) after fermentation
c) during crushing and de-stemming

b) after fermentation

43

Which of the following can be added to de-acidify a wine?
a) potassium bicarbonate
b) tartaric acid
c) potassium bitartrate

a) potassium bicarbonate

44

How can a winemaker increase the potential alcohol level of a light wine?
a) chaptalisation
b) removing water from the must
c) the addition of grape spirit

b) removing water from the must

45

What is does the term anaerobic winemaking refer to?
a) no contact with oxygen
b) contact with oxygen
c) aggressive yeasts are used

a) no contact with oxygen

46

What method can be used to remove alcohol from a wine?
a) must enrichment
b) reverse osmosis
c) bleeding (saignée)

b) reverse osmosis

47

What is meant by free SO2?
a) SO2 that has bound with oxygen and aldehydes
b) SO2 that has not bound with oxygen and can offer protection
c) the total amount of SO2 in a wine

b) SO2 that has not bound with oxygen and can offer protection

48

What is meant by racking?
a) wine is pumped into a different vessel leaving the sediment behind
b) wine ageing in oak barrels are stored on warehouse racks
c) wine is left on its lees and stirred regularly

a) wine is pumped into a different vessel leaving the sediment behind

49

What is the name of the most important winemaking yeast?
a) brettanomyces
b) saccharomyces cerevisiae
c) ambient yeast

b) saccharomyces cerevisiae

50

What is gross lees?
a) chemicals that are dissolved in the wine
b) larger particles that form shortly after fermentation
c) smaller particles that deposit during maturation

b) larger particles that form shortly after fermentation

51

What term is used when a wine has been pasteurised prior to bottling?
a) cold bottling
b) hot bottling
c) sterile bottling

b) hot bottling

52

What are colloids?
a) minute particles unaffected by gravity
b) important solutes like acid and sugar
c) large particles like dead yeast cells

a) minute particles unaffected by gravity

53

Which of these is not a fining agent?
a) bentonite
b) colloids
c) egg white

b) colloids

54

When is a surface filter used?
a) before depth filtration
b) after a depth filter has been used
c) prior to fermentation

b) after a depth filter has been used

55

When does the fining process take place?
a) after tartrate stabilisation
b) before tartrate stabilisation
c) before fermentation

b) before tartrate stabilisation

56

What is the fining agent of choice for a big Bordeaux red?
a) bentonite
b) ox blood
c) egg whites

c) egg whites

57

How can tartrate crystals be forced to form before bottling?
a) chill the wine to below freezing for a short period
b) have the wine undergo pastuerisation
c) the addition of potassium bicarbonate

a) chill the wine to below freezing for a short period

58

What causes cork taint?
a) poor storage resulting in broken corks
b) trichloroanisole
c) harvesting the bark of older cork trees

b) trichloroanisole

59

What type of wine is a synthetic cork best used for?
a) wines capable of long term ageing
b) wines meant for consumption within a year of bottling
c) wines that can age and are meant to preserve fruit flavours

b) wines meant for consumption within a year of bottling

60

What is a merchant?
a) an estate that grows and sells their own wine
b) an institution owned jointly by several owners to share winemaking costs
c) a négociant that buys in grapes & wine to blend, bottle and brand

c) a négociant that buys in grapes & wine to blend, bottle and brand

61

What is the term used for the drying of grapes on the vine?
a) passito
b) passerillage
c) Sϋssreserve

b) passerillage

62

Which of the following is not a botrytis affected wine?
a) Tokaji
b) Vin Santo
c) Beerenauslese

b) Vin Santo

63

When is Sϋssreserve added to the wine?
a) before fermentation
b) during fermentation
c) after fermentation

c) after fermentation

64

Which Rose production method produces the most delicate product?

Direct Pressing

65

What are the four methods of making Rose?

Direct Pressing
Drawing Off
Bleeding (Saignee)
Blending

66

What is the main purpose of the Saignee process?

Draw off to concentrate the Red wine.

67

Malolactic fermentation creates a chemical reaction called?

Diacetyl (buttery taste)

68

What aroma in wine would tip you off of the presence of ethyl acetate?

Nail polish remover or paint thinner

69

Aspersion

Spraying the buds or grapes with water to protect against late frosts or freezes, the water turns to ice which protects the buds from colder temperatures

70

Baumé (FR)

Scale for measuring the must weight / meausres the potential alcohol of a must

71

Brix

Used to measure the sugar percentage in grapes or juice

72

Crossing

A vine variety created by cross-polinating two different varieties within the same species

73

Cuvage

Fermenting in vats

74

Débourbage

Allowing juice to settle before fermentation to reduce sediment

75

Ethanol

Primary alcohol created in the process of fermentation

76

Fining

Removal of a suspended matter in a wine by the addition of a foreign material (bentonite, egg whites, isinglass, etc)

77

Hectolitre

100 litres / 26.418 gallons

78

Hybrid

Creation of a new variety
cross-pollinating two vines of different species

79

Micro-climate

The climate within the canopy of the vine

80

Monopole

Vineyard or site with singular ownership

81

Must

Unfermented grape juice.

82

Mutage

Process of halting fermentation of wine by adding distilled spirits

83

Oechsle

German scale for measuring must weight

84

Tri (pl. tries)

Grapes selected and collected from one pass through the vineyard- chosen for optimum ripeness and flavour.

85

Remontage

Pumping over

86

Ullage

Space above the liquid in a bottle or cask after extended aging- the better the storage conditions, the lesser the amount of ullage

87

Véraison

When the grapes change from green to red (or softer green or yellow), ripening phase. Gen occurs in January (S. Hemisphere) & August (N. Hemisphere)

88

Vielles vignes

Old vines (not a legally defined term)

89

Aspersion

Spraying the buds or grapes with water to protect against late frosts or freezes, the water turns to ice which protects the buds from colder temperatures

90

Cordon

An extension of a vine's trunk

91

Bench graft

Grafting done in a nursery

92

When more Flowers than normal fail to fertilize this is know as?

Coulure

93

What is Millerandage?

Small Seedless Grapes

94

What is Chlorosis?

Lack of Iron.
Loss of Chlorophyll
Leaves turn Yellow / fall off

95

What type of Soil is Chlorosis usually associated with?

High Limestone Content

96

The longer the Skins and Grape must are together is known as?

Maceration

97

A plant accessing water through its roots is know as?

Transpiration

98

Name 3 areas that typically use hand harvesting?

Mosel.
Douro.
Nothern Rhone.

99

What does the term "MOG" mean?

Matter other Than Grapes

100

Why would machine harvesting not work for Champagne?

By law, hand harvesting.
Whole bunches are required for pressing.

101

Machine and Hand harvesting can both produce what type of wine?

Premium Wine

102

What is the advantage of picking whole bunch of grapes?

Results in Cleaner pressed juice.
Red wine / retains stocks / Tannins

103

What factors determine the style of harvesting?

Hand picking by law.
Labour / availability / cost
Topography and how vineyard is planted
Weather conditions

104

When is a "Cordon Sanitaire" used?

To interrupts the life cycle of Sharpshooters.

105

Where is the largest occurrence of Pierce Disease?

Southern California

106

Fanleaf and Leafroll can reduce yield by what percentage?

50%

107

Name 2 virus systemic diseases?

Fanleaf.
Leafroll.

108

Name one fatal bacterial disease?
How is it spread?

Pierces Disease.
Sharpshooters.

109

Downey Mildew thrives in what?

Warm.
Humid

110

Powdery Mildew Thrives in what?

Warm.
Shady

111

Grey rot thrives in?

Humid Conditions.

112

What is the difference between Grey and Noble Rot

Grey affects immature berries.
Noble affects ripe berries.

113

How does Noble Rot effect Grapes?

Ripe grapes.
Microscopic Filaments Puncture Skin.
Moisture drawn off.
Concentration of Sugar / Acids

114

Name some Insects and Arachinds that attack grapes?

Caterpillars.
Moths.
Beatles.
Spider Mites.
Aphids.
Wasps.
Thrips

115

Name 3 Non Systemic Diseases?

Powdery Mildew.
Downey Mildew.
Grey Rot

116

What can make predicting a Yield Estimate difficult?

Frost Damage.
Poor fruit Set.
Pests and Diseases.

117

When is "Green Harvesting" performed?

After Veraison.

118

What can be the negative effect of "Green Harvesting"?

Vine Compensates.
Increases Size of Grapes.
Dilutes Flavours

119

What are some methods used to control "High Input Sites"?

Big Vine.
Rootstock.
Ground Cover

120

If the vineyard is located in a typically Cool and Cloudy site, what can be done to compensate?

Larger Canopy.

121

Name 2 types of " Big Vine" systems?

Lyre.
Geneva Double Curtain.

122

What was the classic European solution to control vigour?

Low Nutrient Site.
High Density

123

What is a vineyard site that is high in Water, Heat, Nutrients and sunlight called?

High Input.

124

Name three types of Vine Training methods?

Bush.
VSP
Big Vines

125

What is "Replacement cane" pruning often referred to?

Guyot.
One Cane = Single Guyot
two Canes = Double Guyot

126

What is required in replacement cane pruning?

Large / Skilled / work force.

127

Permanent wood is not susceptible to what?

Frost

128

Pruning manages?

Size of Vine

129

Training manages?

Direction of growth of Vine.

130

Name one advantage of vines trained with a permanent Cordon?

Can be Mechanically Pruned.

131

What is the second most abundant form of acid in a grape?

Malic

132

What are the two most important compounds found in grape skins?

Flavour.
Taninns

133

What is the advantage of using concrete vessels over stainless steel vessels?

Lower cost in temperature control.

134

What is the largest component of a grape?

Water.

135

What is the second largest component of a grape?

Sugar

136

What flavours are extracted from American Oak?

Vanilla.
Coconut

137

Toasting a barrel is what?

Charring the inside

138

What is a Burgundy barrel called and how many litres?

"Piece"
228L

139

What aromas are extracted from a European Oak barrel?

Vanilla.
Toast.
Smokiness

140

Which is more expensive, American or European Oak?

European Oak

141

Which Oak is more porous, American or European?

European

142

How has Anaerobic wine making revolutionized modern wine making?

Freshness.
Quality.

143

What is a Bordeaux barrel called and how many Litres?

Barrique.
225L

144

What is the maximum time wine in Bordeaux would be kept in a barrel?

2 years.

145

To make a wine dominated by varietal fruit character, oxygen is a?

Threat

146

Sulfur Dioxide is used as what?

Antioxidant.
Antiseptic

147

What two products can be used to flush winery equipment?

Co2.
Nitrogen

148

What is the name of the Powdered Sulfur Dioxide?

Potassium Metabisulfite

149

Oaks primary function is to?

Add Tannin

150

Tannin help to do what to colour in wine?

Stabilize

151

Oxidation during maturation helps develop what in wines?

Complexity.
Depth.
Soften Tannin.
Stabilize Colour.

152

Which Acid bacteria causes vinegar to occur?

Acetic

153

An ideal vineyard soil would be lacking in?

Nutrients

154

What is the result of too much Nitrogen in the soil?

Vigorous Growth.
Dense Canopy / Creating Shade

155

The term Terrior is defined as?
(5)

Aspect.
Slope.
Climate.
Weather.
Grape Variety

156

A shortage of Water can cause what kind of water hazard?

No Photosynthesis.

157

Too much Water can cause what kind of water hazard?

Too much growth.

158

Too much Rainfall can cause what kind of water hazard?

Damp / Rot.
Bloated grapes just before harvest

159

What type of soil is best for moisture retention?

Clay

160

Typically what Nutrients are present in Soil?

Nitrogen.
Phosphorous.
Potassium.

161

Flowering and Fruit set can be disrupted by?

Heavy Rain.

162

What are 3 main types of Irrigation?

Drip.
Sprinklers.
Flood

163

The Vine needs water for?

Photosynthesis

164

If a vine is slightly stressed, what occurs?

Glucose switches to grape growth from shoot growth.

165

What controls the rate of Photosynthesis?

Light Levels

166

The more light, what is produced in greater quantities?

Glucose.

167

Glucose is required for what?

Growth.
Grape ripening

168

What combined does the leaf require for Photosynthesis?

Co2.
Water

169

Name four ways to combat spring frosts?

Smudge Pots.
Wind Machines.
Sprinklers.
Vineyard Design.

170

Name 2 well know areas that benefit from fog?

Napa.
Casablanca

171

At what temperature do vine cells not function?

Below 10*C

172

What happens when the OAT goes above 22*C?

Vine consumes more sugar than photosynthesis can produce.

173

What is the average temperature range for the grapes to ripen successfully?

16 to 21*C

174

What is Climate?

Regional pattern / Average.
Temperature Sun.
Rain

175

Does Climate change from one year to the next?

No

176

A regions weather is what?

Annual Variation in Climate.

177

Name 4 ways of concentrating grape sugars?

Noble rot.
Passerillage.
Drying after picking.
Freezing on Vine

178

Extraction of Tannin, how does it occur during Fermentation?

Start of fermentation / Slow.
Heat and Alcohol rise / more rapid

179

What is a common practice in Rioja and the rest of Spain?

Semi Carbonic Maceration

180

Sussreserve is added to dry wines when they are ready to be bottled. True / False?

True

181

Name four methods of extraction in the making of red wine?

Pumping Over.
Punch Down.
Rack and Return.
Rotary Fermentators

182

When does the most colour extraction occur?

Beginning of Maceration.

183

What happens when water is removed from the grape must?

Increase in Potential Alcohol

184

Name 2 methods that can be used to increase Potential Alcohol?

Reverse Osmosis.
Vacuum Distillation

185

What effect would the use of Calcium Carbonate and Calcium Tartrate-Malate have on the must?

Reduces Malic / Tartaric Acids

186

Is there such a thing a Tannin Powder. True / False?

True

187

Which Rootstock is best suited to Lime rich soils?

V. Berlandieri

188

Rootstock can be used to combat?

Nemotodes.
Drought.
Salinty.
Vigor

189

Crossing?

Both parents V. Vinifera

190

Hybrid?

One parent V. Vinifera, one Parent not.

191

Name an example of a Crossing?

Pinotage (Pinot Noir x Cinsault)

192

What is a Cutting?

taken from a shoot before it becomes woody.

193

What is layering?

Bending down a cane.
Burying it.

194

What is a Clone?

Cutting that shows desired characteristics.

195

What are the Criticisms of Cloning.

Priorities different 20 - 30 years later.

196

What is a Hermaphrodite?

Male and Female

197

Typically how many buds are on a Cane?

8 to 15

198

Typically how many buds are on a Spure?

2 to 3

199

What are Inflorescences?

Flowers grouped in bunches.

200

If a wine is dominated by Primary and Secondary aromas it is know as?

Youthful.
Secondary stand apart

201

If a wines aromas are Tertiary it is considered?

Developed

202

What filtration system removes Gross Lees?

Depth

203

Which Filtration system can handle very cloudy wines?

Depth

204

The most common material that a Depth filter is made from?

Kieselguhr.

205

When does Surface Filtration occur, before or after Depth Filtration?

After.

206

If the filter on Surface Filtration is fine enough to remove bacteria this is known as?

Sterile Filtration.