Learning Disabilities, Down's Syndrome, and Autism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Learning Disabilities, Down's Syndrome, and Autism Deck (29):
1

Define learning disability

Subaverage intellectual functioning, alongside deficits in at least 2 areas of adaptive functioning, that occurs before the age of 18

2

What IQ range do LDs tend to lie in?

IQ below 70

3

What are the adaptive skills?

Communication
Self care
Home living
Social skills
Community use
Self direction
Health and safety
Functional academics
Leisure
Work

4

What is the range for a Borderline IQ?

70-84

5

What is the range for a Mild LD IQ?

50-69

6

What is the range for a Moderate LD IQ?

35-49

7

What is the range for a Severe LD IQ?

20-34

8

What is the range for a Profound LD IQ?

Below 20

9

What are the characteristics of a borderline LD?

Subtle - live independantly but still vulnerable.

Experience communication difficulties. School drop-out or in special education. Struggle to keep a job. Risk of relationship abuse.

10

What are the characteristics of a mild LD?

Relative independence, however abstract concepts are difficult (e.g. perception of time). May have paid employment. Require varing levels of care.

11

What are the characteristics of a moderate LD?

Basic communication skills, require supervision with self care. Live in supported accommodation. Can engage in structured programmes/workshops.

12

What are the characteristics of a severe LD?

Very limited communication, motor impairment, need supervision for ADLs.

13

What are the characteristics of a profound LD?

Require 24 hour supervision, often have multiple co-morbidities. Inner world largely unavailable to others due to communication difficulties.

14

What are learning disabilities confused with?

Learning difficulties i.e. dyselxia, dyspraxia, dyscalclia (SP??), ADHD or ASD (issues with concentration)

15

Can someone develop a learning disability after the age of 18?

No, it’s a developmental issue rather than an aquired disability

16

What is the main cause of a learning disability?

Unknown -majority of cases have no known cause, especially with borderline/mild

17

What is the most common inherited cause of learning disabilities?

Fragile X Syndrome

18

What is Fragile X Syndrome?

A genetic disorder caused by a gene mutation. The gene normally codes for a protein, and may be involved in the development of synapses, as well as some other functions.

19

What is the most common genetic cause of learning disabilities?

Down's syndrome

20

Worldwide, what is the most common cause of LDs?

Malnutrition and starvation in childhood

21

What other genetic causes are the of LDs due to chromosomal abberations, apart from Down's syndrome and Fragile X syndrome?

Edward's syndrome, Patau syndrome, Kleinfelter's syndrome, Turner's syndrome.

22

Name another inherited cause of LDs which has autosommal dominant trait.

Tuberous sclerosis

23

What are some peri-natal causes of LDs?

Iatrogenic (radiation, chemo, medication), Infections (TORCH), Delivery (anoxic brain damage, prematurity), Feotal alcohol syndrome, Hyperbilirubinaemia.

24

What are the TORCH group infections?

Toxoplasmosis, Other, Rubella, CMV, Herpes. Other -> syphillis, VZV,Paravirus B19

25

What are some post-natal causes of LDs?

Infection (encephalitis), Metabolic (hypoglycaemia), endocrine (hypothyroidism), CV (thromboembolism), toxins (lead), trauma (head injury), neoplasm (meningioma), psychosocial (low SE background).

26

What is the genetic name for Down's syndrome?

Trisomy 21

27

What is the incidence of Down's syndrome?

1 in 660 live births

28

What systems does Down' syndrome affect?

Multiple:
-Heart defects
-Diminished muscle tone
-Facial abnormalities
-Enlarged colon
-Pelvic abnormality

And others

29

What are some common co-morbidities associated with Down's syndrome?

Epilepsy
Hypothyroidism
Obesity
Sensory Impairments
C-spine abnormalities
Obstructive sleep apnoea
Recurrent resp tract and ear infections