Learning outcome 3 Flashcards Preview

Obs and gobs > Learning outcome 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning outcome 3 Deck (31):
1

Paturition

Childbirth which involves both labor and delivery

2

Labor

The function by which a new individual is expelled through the vagina into the outside world

3

Delivery

The expulsion or extraction of a child at birth

4

Four Ps of variables of labor

Powers
Passage
Passengery
Psyche

5

Primary powers 4 ps of pregnancy

Contractions
Retractions
Secondary powers are bearing down/pushing (contraction of abdo muscles)
Second stage of labor

6

Purpose of contractions

Effacement and dilation of cervix
Facilitation of descent and rotation of the fetus
Separation and expulsion of the placenta
Maintenance of hemostasis

7

Definition of contraction

Temporary and involuntary shortening and thickening of the Uterine muscles

8

Contraction definitions

Time between start of a contraction to the start of the next one
Duration is the length
Intensity is strength

9

Strength of contractions

Hand on fundus, Cheek is mild, nose is moderate, forehead is strong

10

Three phases of contraction

Increment
Acme: peak of contraction
Decrement

11

Intervals between contractions

Allows uterus to rest, assure its uninterrupted blood circulation

12

Retractions

Shortening of uterine muscles that persist after a contraction
Aids in reducing the size of the uterine cavity
Aids in a thickening of muscle in the uterus

13

Effacement of the cervix

Softening, thinning and shortening of cervical canal
Measure

14

More on effacement

Primipara - effacement usually precedes dilation
Multiparas - occurs with dilation, the cervix may be effaced 50% before the labour begins

15

At your cervix dilation

Opening and enlargement of external cervical, caused by retraction of the cervix, full is 10cm

16

Secondary powers

Pushing
Augment the primary power, involve abdo and diaphragm muscles
Increases pressure to pop bebe out
Voluntary initially, turns involuntary.
When pressures of the fetal head on the pelvic floor --> very strong, sacral nerve stim

17

Secondary powers during crowning

Panting exercises suppresses pushing to prevent explosive delivery and rips the perineum to shreds

18

Passages

Boney pelvis.
Soft passages - uterus, cervix, vag, pernieum

19

Bony pelvis

Size and shape must be adequate for delivery

20

Estimation of adequacy in bony pelvis

Determined by maternal pelvis anatomy - the bony pelvis, muscles of pelvic floor and perineume

21

Angle of birth canal

J shaped
Downward forward then upward

22

Best pelvis

Gynecoid

23

Soft passages include

UterUS, cervix, vag, perineum.
Surrounding structures pelvic muscles, bladder and urethra

24

Passengers of the 4 p's

Fetus, amniotic fluid and sac, umbilical cord, placenta

25

The fetus positioning

Must undergo a series of maneuvers to accommodate its descent
Factors involved - fetal head, fetopelvic relationship (presentation, position, altitude, lie, station)
mechanisms of labour

26

Fetal head

Usually is presenting part, not compressible as the rest of the body, represents the largest part of term infant
Head has ability to mold (sutures and fontanelles) usually without damage to underlying tissue

27

Fetopelvis relationship to know

Presentation, position, attitude, lie and station

28

Presentation (fetopelvic relationship)

Cephalic 95%
Vertix (face up)
Brow
Face
Breech 4%
Shoulder 1%

29

Breech, Frank Breech

Frank breech is legs extended butt first

30

Position

Relationship of designated point on the presenting part of the fetus to a designed point in the maternal pelvis - what part of baby is presenting and where is it pointing

31

3 standard elements of position

Side of maternal pelvis, designated point of the fetal presenting part, location of the designated point to the maternal pelvis
95% of the vertex deliveries are OA