Learning Outcomes 1-3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Learning Outcomes 1-3 Deck (72)
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1

Describe a Prokaryotic Cell

They do not have a nucleus and are single celled organisms

2

Describe a Eukaryotic Cell

They have a nucleus and organelles and are multicellular organisms

3

1 Micrometer is

1/millionth of a meter

4

Nanometer is

1/billionth of a meter

5

Explain the Binomial System of Naming Microbes

Also called the taxonomic system.
First name=Genus
Second name=Species

6

Atom

Smallest unit with no charge.
Have a nucleus containing Protons (+) and Neutrons (0) and a shell containing Electrons (-)

7

Ions

Atoms with a positive or negative charge

8

How are atoms glued together?

Atoms bond together with covalent bonds.

9

Covalent Bonds

Bonds that share electrons with no charge

10

How do ions form?

Ions are formed when an atom gains or loses an electron causing it to have a positive or negative charge

11

Ionic Bonds

Bond of atoms that have an opposite charge of each other

12

Polar Covalent Bond

Atoms bonded unequally that share electrons

13

Nonpolar Covalent Bond

Atoms bounded equally that share electrons

14

Why is water essential for bacterial life?

Water dissolves their 'food' and provides the enzymes and cell with nutrients they need to survive.
Helps with slam dancing.

15

Why do polar substances dissolve in water?

Hydrophilic and like water
Able to form hydrogen bonds with the water

16

Why don't nonpolar substances dissolve in water?

Hydrophobic, do not like water, unable to form hydrogen bonds with water

17

pH

Used to describe acidity of a solution based on the amount of H+ that is in the concentration on a scale of 1-10

18

4 Macromolecules

Nucleic Acids, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats

19

Nucleic Acid's Monomer and Function

Nucleotides
Make up RNA and DNA of a cell

20

Carbohydrate's Monomer and Function

Simple Sugars
Structure materials and energy storage

21

Lipid's Monomer and Function

Fatty Acids + Glycerol
Create the membranes of a cell and energy storage

22

Protein's Monomer and Function

Amino Acids
Structure and shape of the cell
Nutrition, Transportation, Signaling, Messaging

23

How are macromolecules constructed?

Monomers need a carrier to bring them to polymers and form peptide bonds

24

How are macromolecules broken down?

Parts of water are added to two adjacent monomers in the polymers to break the bonds apart

25

Examples of Disaccharides

Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose

26

Examples of Polysaccharides

Amalose, Glycogen

27

What makes proteins different from each other?

The number and sequence of amino acids it has

28

How does a protein fold into a 3D shape?

Hydrophobic amino acids are located inside the cluster and the hydrophilic amino acids are located inside and outside the cluster. Inside to form Hydrogen Bonds and outside to bond with water

29

What is an enzyme's function for chemical reactions in a bacterial cell?

Used to speed up and create faster chemical reactions

30

How are enzyme's named?

Their name identifies the substrate or the type of chemical reaction it catalyzes

31

What conditions affect protein activity? and How?

The higher the temperature, the faster the enzymes and molecules move until it reaches the optimal number and then the cell denatures.
pH can affect how well the enzymes and substrates bind together if the optimal number is not exact or close to exact.

32

How do competitive inhibitors work?

A C.I. has the same part as the substrate and binds to the enzyme at the active site while slam dancing around. It prevents the substrate from activating the enzyme.

33

What is the basic structure of a nucleotide?

Made of either ribose or deoxyribose. Has a phosphate groups and a nucleotide base.

34

Structural features of RNA and DNA

RNA: Single strand (ACGU)
DNA: Double stranded helix (ACGT)

35

Why do phospholipids dissolve in water but fats do not?

Fats cannot dissolve in water because they have the maximum number of fatty acids that are hydrophobic. Phospholipids only have 2 fatty acids and the open spot is composed of a molecule with an electrical charge, it is amphipathic.

36

What is the structure of a triglyceride?

Have 3 fatty acids and a glycerol.
Can be saturated or unsaturated.

37

How do phospholipids form bilayer spheres in water?

Hydrophobic tails of both layers want to avoid water so they stick together and intertwine with each other. The heads of the phospholipids are hydrophilic so they stay on the outside and inside of the sphere.

38

What are the basic shapes of bacterial cells?

Coccus, Bacillus, Spirochete
May be arranged in di (2), strep (chain), tetrad (4), staph (cluster)

39

Why are most prokaryotes small?

Diffusion works best with small particles and molecules

40

Cell Wall

Made of peptidoglycan, surrounds a cell, provides protection from destruction

41

Nucleoid

Made of mostly DNA with small amounts of RNA and proteins.
In the middle of the cell and holds all of the genetic info of cell without separating it from cytoplasm

42

Capsule

Made of polysaccharides, surrounds a cell (outermost layer) and protects it from engulfment by certain white blood cells

43

Plasma Membrane

Made of phospholipid bilayer, surrounds the cell underneath the cell wall and regulates what goes in and out of the cell. Contains integral proteins as channels

44

Plasmid

Made of DNA and are small independent pieces of the genetic code. Carry triads that can be an advantage to the cell but are not essential

45

Fimbria

Sticky, bristle-like tubes made of protein
Located on cell surface and used for movement across a membrane

46

Out Membrane

Made of lipopolysaccharides, only in Gram- bacterial cells. Gives more protection to these cells considering its cell wall is smaller than Gram+

47

Ribosome

Make proteins for cell. Contain RNA molecules and process other RNA molecules by removing sections of RNA and splicing remaining pieces together

48

Pilus

Made of protein and extend from the membrane to assist in the transfer of DNA to another cell (conjugation)

49

Periplasm

Located in the periplasmic space between the membrane and the outer membrane.
Contains peptidoglycan

50

Inclusions

Collections of molecules/ions that store things in plentiful times (storage granules)

51

Flagellum

Structures that extend beyond the surface of a cell and propel itself through its environment. Multiple different types of flagella and constructed of many different proteins

52

Cytoplasm

Made of enzymes, RNA, ions and other stuff. Inside the cell everywhere.
Cell growth, metabolism and replication

53

Glycocalyx

Gel-like, made of polysaccharides and helps it attach to surfaces and protects it from engulfment

54

Describe the basic structure of peptidoglycan

Cross linking of it creates a mesh outside of the cell membrane to form the thickness of the cell wall. The more cross linkages, the stronger the peptidoglycan will be.

55

Gram + Cells' Characteristics

More peptidoglycan, Separated cross linkages, have teichoic acids, cell wall is thicker

56

Gram - Cells' Characteristics

Has thin layer of peptidoglycan protected by an outer membrane, directly linked cross linkages

57

How do penicillin and lysozyme affect antibacterial activity?

Penicillin: Stops the formation of cell walls in bacteria but does not have an affect if the cell wall is already made
Lysozyme: Cleaves the sugar backbone, destroying the cell

58

2 Groups of bacteria that lack a cell wall.

Micoplasms and Chlamydia

59

How does a membrane regulate movement of substances in and out of cell?

Diffusion through membrane, integral proteins or ATP
Diffusion = high solution concentration to low solution concentration

60

How does osmosis work?

Diffusion of water in and out of a cell from high water concentration to low water concentration

61

Fate of a cell with and without a cell wall when hypotonic.

With: Faster chemical reactions occur
Without: Cell membrane bursts

62

Fate of a cell with and without a cell wall when isotonic.

No change

63

Fate of a cell with and without a cell wall when hypertonic.

With: Slower chemical reactions occur
Without: Cell shrinks and shrivels up

64

Basic organization of a bacterial biofilm

Slimy masses of microbes living in a community adhering to a substance by means of fimbriae to protect themselves from toxins like antibiotics

65

Benefits of biofilms to bacteria

Resistance to antibiotics, efficient metabolism, easier to get nutrients

66

Relation of biofilms and human diseases

Biofilms can be created from poorly cleaned injection sites, catheters, teeth/gums

67

How bacteria use flagella to move..

Flagella turn at the same rate in a definite direction but if food is lacking, it tumbles, switches spinning directions, switches back and then runs towards a new location

68

How do bacteria use chemotaxis?

Flagella can sense chemicals dissolved in water and respond accordingly to the direction it thinks food is

69

Endospores

Allow a bacteria to survive in dangerous environments and can keep it living for years at a time.
Resistant to heat, chemicals, etc

70

When environment is suitable, endospores...

germinate back to vegetative cells

71

2 Bacterial genera that contain endospore-forming bacteria

Bacillus and Clostridium

72

2 Infectious diseases caused by endospore-forming bacteria

Antrax and Tetanus