Flashcards in Learning Theory & Behavior Therapy 4 Deck (27):
What did Harlow find about extrinsic versus intrinsic rewards?
Some tasks are intrinsically reinforcing. If we are given external reinforcement for an intrinsically rewarding task, we lose interest in them without those rewards (lose intrinsic reinforcement).
Harlow argued for including two new needs to the list of unlearned reinforcers, apart from food, water, and sex. What were they?
The need to explore and the need to manipulate. (Related to his experiments in which monkey's learned to open doors that would allow them to view interesting scenes.)
What, according to Harlow, is learning how to learn?
Gaining experiences that allow one to solve similar types of problems more efficiently.
What is Hull's Drive Reduction Theory?
Posits that desire to reduce drive level (hunter, thirst, aggression, sex) is motivation for learning.
Discuss Miller & Dollard's approach-avoidance conflict.
An organism may have two types of drives: those that lead it to approach or to avoid a target. Some goals elicit both; these represent approach-avoidance conflicts.
Genetic variables can affect an organism's preparedness to learn. Name four levels of this preparedness.
Complete, very rapid acquisition (instinct or imprinting). Somewhat facilitated (avoiding pain, poisonous foods, dangerous animals). Minimally influenced (normal classical/operant/social learning). Contraprepared (learning that goes counter to species, trait, character, etc.)
Discuss J. A. Olds' conditioning through self-stimulation experiments with rats.
Olds planted electrodes in rats' medial forebrain bundle of the lateral hypothalamus and found that rats would press levers to self-stimulate until they dropped from exhaustion. It was postulated that this triggered synaptic release of norepinephrine, which may evoke feelings of well-being, elation, and euphoria.
What is the Yerkes-Dodson Law?
There are optimal levels of arousal for learning and task performance. For very easy and moderately difficult tasks, higher levels are best. For very difficult tasks, moderate arousal levels are best. In all cases, the relationship takes the shape of an inverted U.
What are the three components of behavioral assessment?
Antecedent (situational analysis); behavior (response enumeration); consequences (response evaluation). A.k.a., functional analysis.
Describe Ebbinghaus' studies of memory.
He practiced memorizing nonsense syllables and assessed methods of measuring learning and retention.
Describe Ebbinghaus' "savings method" measure of relearning speed.
He found that overlearning, i.e., repeating a memorized list beyond the minimum required to learn it, made for relearning that was faster and had fewer errors.
What did Ebbinghaus find about the nature of forgetting?
Forgetting occurs quickly at first, then slows.
Describe the three parts of the multi-store model of memory.
Sensory memory, working/short-term memory, long-term memory.
Describe the properties and divisions of sensory memory.
Stores large amounts of sensory data for brief periods. Comprised of iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory) stores. Iconic stores retain images for up to 1/2 second; echoic for up to 2 seconds.
Describe the properties of short-term memory.
Stores small amounts (5-9 items) of data for up to 30 seconds. With rehearsal (a.k.a., articulatory loop, repeating data to oneself), information can be held in STM for longer. With chunking (grouping data into small subsets), more data can be retained in STM.
What is the difference between short-term-memory and working memory?
Working memory refers to short-term memory that is able to store thoughts or facts temporarily while one is focused on other tasks.
Describe the properties and divisions of long-term memory.
Stores apparently unlimited amounts of data indefinitely. Data for retention gets transferred from STM through elaborative rehearsal or other means (some of which are unknown). Divisions, some of which overlap, are procedural, semantic, episodic/autobiographical, implicit, and explicit/declarative.
What is procedural memory?
Contains data about how to do things.
What is semantic memory?
Contains non-autobiographical factual information, including rules of language and logic.
What is episodic/autobiographical information?
Contains information about personal experience.
What is explicit/declarative memory?
Contains information that is consciously known, that can be revealed through direct testing. Includes semantic and episodic/autobiographical information.
What is implicit memory?
Information retrieved without conscious effort or awareness. (Study guide places procedural memory and conditioned responses here.)
What is the serial position effect in memory?
Items in the beginning and the end of a list are better recalled than those in the middle. Believed to be due to first items being transferred to long-term memory and last items remaining in short-term memory. A.k.a., primacy-recency effect.
What are flashbulb memories?
Vivid, detailed episodic memories of emotionally-charged or surprising events. Tend to be most accurate when personally significant. They retain their subjective certitude over time, even though later recollections can differ substantially from earlier ones.
What is anterograde amnesia?
Inability to form new memories.
What is retrograde amnesia?
Inability to recall previously formed memories.