LEC 12 - GI III Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LEC 12 - GI III Deck (83):
1

Describe: Bloat 

Distention of the rumen by gas accuumulation 

2

What is another name for bloat?

Ruminal Tympany 

3

What is the cause of primary bloat?

Legume/dietary/frothy bloat

Formation of stable foam when fed certain feeds

4

What foods cause primary bloat?

Alfalfa 

Ladino clover 

Grain concentrates 

5

What causes secondary bloat?

Physical or functional obstruction or stenosis 

6

How does bloat manifest?

Distended left paralumbar fossas 

Compresses the diaphragm 

Increases intraabdominal + intrathoracic pressure 

7

What does the intrathoracic pressure lead to in bloat?

Decrease in venous return to the heart 

Generalized congestion cranial to thoracic inlet 

8

What is a bloat line?

Sharp demarcation between caudal + crainal mucosa of esophagus 

 

9

What causes the bloat line?

Compromised venous return 

Leads to grossly distended rumen which displaces the diaphragm cranially 

 

10

Term: Hari balls 

Trichobezors 

11

Term: Phytobezors 

Plant balls 

 

12

What causes phytobezoars?

Indigestable roughage

13

What occurs in rumenants when nails or wires are ingested?

Perforation of reticulaum 

Leads to reticulitis + peritonitis 

-- sometimes pericarditis 

14

What disease occurs with nail/wire ingestion?

Hardware disease

15

What can occur with battery ingestion?

Lead poisoning 

16

What is seen grossly with traumatic reticulitis?

perforated walls of reticulum 

tend to lodge in tunica muscularis 

Wire will be surrounded by sinus tract draining to surface reticulum 

Chronic ulcer will form 

17

What causes rumenitits?

Lactic acidosis 

18

What causes lactic acidosis in ruminants?

Grain overload 

Sudden diet change to easily fermentable/carb feed 

OR 

Change in fee volume 

19

What is the pathogenesis of lactic acidosis?

Change in feed 

Promotion of Gram (+) bacteria 

Produce lactic acid 

Low pH in rumen 

Acidic pH eliminates normal flora + damage mucosa

20

What is the normal ruminal pH?

5.5 to 7.5

21

What is the cause of death in rumenitis?

Dehydration > Increased osmotic effect 

Acidosis + Circulatory collapse 

22

What is seen grossly with rumenitis?

Abundant grain in ruminal contents 

Watery contents 

Multifocal scars = previous episodes

23

What are the histological lesions seen with rumenitis?

Coagulative necrosis of ruminal epi. 

Neutrophilic inflammation 

Widespread mucosal ulceration 

24

What are the bacterial causes of rumenitis?

Trueperella pyogenes 

Fusobacterium necrophorum 

25

What can bacterial rumenitits lead to?

Will colonize damaged ruminal wall 

Transported to liver via portal ciruclation 

26

What are the common fungus related to rumenitis?

Aspergillus 

Mucor 

Rhizopus 

Abisdia 

Mortierella 

 

27

What causes fungus to create rumenitis?

Antibiotic treatments 

28

What is seen grossly with mycotic rumenitis?

Numerous well-demarcated red foci of necrosis + hemorrhage 

 

29

What causes vagal indigestion?

Damage to the vagus nerve 

Function outflow problem from the forestomach

30

Vagal indigestion: Type I

Caused by inflammatory lesions around the nerve 

31

Vagal indigestion: Type II 

Functional or Anatomical condition 

Results in failure of omasal transport into abomasum 

32

Vagal indigestion: Type III

Phyiscal impaction of abomasum

33

Vagal indigestion: Type IV 

Pregnancy related 

Shifting position of abomasum 

Compression of abdominal branches of the nerve 

34

What are the three common parasites that affect the rumen?

Paramphistomum 

Calicophoron 

Cotylophoron 

35

When do ruminal parasites cause pathology?

When they reach the SI

36

What do ruminal parasites cause once they reach the small intestine?

Hypoproteinemia 

Anemia 

Death

37

What does a massive amount of immature paramphistomes in the duodenum cause?

Severe catarrhal duodenitis 

38

What types of dogs tend to be predisposed to gastric dilation volvulus?

Large, deep chested breeds

39

What are the predisposing factors for gastric dilation volvulus?

Distending gas 

Fluid or feed 

Obstruction of the cardia 

Obstruction of pylorus 

40

How does gastric dilation volvulus occur?

Repeated episodes of stretching + relaxation of gastrohepatic ligament 

Vascular compression occurs with gastric rotation 

41

What does the pressure from the gastric rotation cause?

Antiperistaltic waves 

Atony 

Cardiovascular ischemia 

Shuck 

42

What is the gross appearance of gastric dilation?

Stomach filled with gas 

Serosa congested 

Duodenum + Spleen displaced to right 

Spleen engorged 

43

What is the most common direction that abomasal displacement occurs?

Left 

44

What is the common presentation left-sided abdomasal displacement?

Non-fatal entity seen in dairy cattle at 6 weeks after parturition 

45

What can abomasal displacement lead to?

Parial obstruction of abomasal outflow

46

What can cause right sided abomasal displacement? 

Rotate on its mesenteric axis 

Displaced dorsally 

Occurs post-parturient dairy + calves 

47

How do you know an abomasal rupture occur antemortem?

Multifocal hemorrhaging along upper margin of the tear 

 

48

What causes braxy?

Clostriudium septicum 

49

What is braxy?

Hemorrhagic abomastitis

 

50

What animal does braxy present in?

Sheep

51

What does braxy lead to in sheep?

Death due to exotoxemia

52

What is the causative agent in calf abomasitis?

Sarcina-like organisms

53

What is the characteristic lesion in calf abomasitis?

Abomasal wall edema + bloat 

54

What are the causative agents in sepcticemia of pigs?

Salmonella 

Branchyspira hyodysenteriae 

Collibacilosis 

55

What occurs in the GI tract of pigs with sepcticemia? 

Bacteria lodge in gastric submucosal vessles 

Leads to thrombosis + hemorrhage + Infarction + Ulceration 

56

What animal does granulomatous gastritis? 

Carnivores 

57

What are the causetive for granulomatous gastritis?

Histoplasma capsulatum 

Mycobacterium tuberculosis 

58

What are the three types of eosinophilic gastritis? 

Focal 

Diffuse 

Scirrhous 

59

Describe: Focal Eosinophilic Gastritis 

Toxocara canis 

Mural nematode

60

Describe: Diffuse Eosinophilic Gastritis 

Due to hypersensitivity reaction 

61

Describe: Scirrhous Eosinophilic Gastritis 

Idiopathic 

Characterized by fibrosis 

62

What is hypertrophic gastritis characterized by?

Thickened rugae 

 

63

What is hypertrophic gastritis a result of?

Chronic retention of gastric fluid 

Reflux of intestinal bile

64

Cause of hypertrophic gastritis in Dogs

Idiopathic

65

Cause of hypertrophic gastritis in Primates 

Notchia nocti infestation 

66

Cause of hypertrophic gastritis in Horses

Habronema 

Trichostrongylus axei 

67

What is chronic giant hypertrophic gastropathy of dogs?

Protein-losing gastropathy 

68

What breeds are pre-disposed to chronic giant hypertrophic gastropathy?

Beagles 

Basenji 

Boxer 

Bull terrier 

69

What is the gross presentation of chronic giant hypertrophic gastropathy?

Cerebriform mass of redunant mucosa prsent in center of gastric mucosa 

Chornic inflammation in mass = increased mucosal permeability 

70

What is the most common cause of gastric ulcers in dogs + cats? 

Helicobacter-like organisms 

71

What is the condition necessary for gastric ulcers to occur?

Imbalance between acid secretion + mucosal protection

72

What can result in gastric imbalances leading to ulcers?

Trauma 

High gastric acidity 

Disturbances of blood flow 

Steroids 

NSAID's 

73

Why do steroid + NSAID's cause gastric ulcers?

Depression of prostaglandin formation 

Decreasing phospholipid secretion 

74

What is Zollinger-Ellison syndrome?

Gastric ulcers develop secondary to islet cell tumors in pancreas or duodenum

75

How do pancreatic or duodenal tumors result in gastric uclers?

Secret gastrin 

Increasing release of histamine in circulation 

increases HCl secretion in stomach 

76

What can cause gastric ulcers in cattle?

Dietary changes 

Mechanical irritaion 

BVD infection 

Gastric lymphoma 

Torsions

77

What causes gatric ulcers in foals?

Idiopathic

78

What causes gastric ulcers in adult horses?

NSAID use

79

What causes gastric ulcers in pigs?

Finely ground feed 

 

80

In pigs, where are gastric ulcers limited to?

Stratified squamous epithelium

81

What neoplasias occur in the stomach?

Leiomyoma/sarcoma 

Lymphoma 

SCC 

Adenomas/carcinomas 

Mast cell tumors 

82

What is lymphoma in the stomach associated with in bovids?

BLV

83

Where does leiomyomas arise from in the stomach?

Tunica muscularis?