Distention of the rumen by gas accuumulation
What is another name for bloat?
What is the cause of primary bloat?
Formation of stable foam when fed certain feeds
What foods cause primary bloat?
What causes secondary bloat?
Physical or functional obstruction or stenosis
How does bloat manifest?
Distended left paralumbar fossas
Compresses the diaphragm
Increases intraabdominal + intrathoracic pressure
What does the intrathoracic pressure lead to in bloat?
Decrease in venous return to the heart
Generalized congestion cranial to thoracic inlet
What is a bloat line?
Sharp demarcation between caudal + crainal mucosa of esophagus
What causes the bloat line?
Compromised venous return
Leads to grossly distended rumen which displaces the diaphragm cranially
Term: Hari balls
What causes phytobezoars?
What occurs in rumenants when nails or wires are ingested?
Perforation of reticulaum
Leads to reticulitis + peritonitis
-- sometimes pericarditis
What disease occurs with nail/wire ingestion?
What can occur with battery ingestion?
What is seen grossly with traumatic reticulitis?
perforated walls of reticulum
tend to lodge in tunica muscularis
Wire will be surrounded by sinus tract draining to surface reticulum
Chronic ulcer will form
What causes rumenitits?
What causes lactic acidosis in ruminants?
Sudden diet change to easily fermentable/carb feed
Change in fee volume
What is the pathogenesis of lactic acidosis?
Change in feed
Promotion of Gram (+) bacteria
Produce lactic acid
Low pH in rumen
Acidic pH eliminates normal flora + damage mucosa
What is the normal ruminal pH?
5.5 to 7.5
What is the cause of death in rumenitis?
Dehydration > Increased osmotic effect
Acidosis + Circulatory collapse
What is seen grossly with rumenitis?
Abundant grain in ruminal contents
Multifocal scars = previous episodes
What are the histological lesions seen with rumenitis?
Coagulative necrosis of ruminal epi.
Widespread mucosal ulceration
What are the bacterial causes of rumenitis?
What can bacterial rumenitits lead to?
Will colonize damaged ruminal wall
Transported to liver via portal ciruclation
What are the common fungus related to rumenitis?
What causes fungus to create rumenitis?
What is seen grossly with mycotic rumenitis?
Numerous well-demarcated red foci of necrosis + hemorrhage
What causes vagal indigestion?
Damage to the vagus nerve
Function outflow problem from the forestomach
Vagal indigestion: Type I
Caused by inflammatory lesions around the nerve
Vagal indigestion: Type II
Functional or Anatomical condition
Results in failure of omasal transport into abomasum
Vagal indigestion: Type III
Phyiscal impaction of abomasum
Vagal indigestion: Type IV
Shifting position of abomasum
Compression of abdominal branches of the nerve
What are the three common parasites that affect the rumen?
When do ruminal parasites cause pathology?
When they reach the SI
What do ruminal parasites cause once they reach the small intestine?
What does a massive amount of immature paramphistomes in the duodenum cause?
Severe catarrhal duodenitis
What types of dogs tend to be predisposed to gastric dilation volvulus?
Large, deep chested breeds
What are the predisposing factors for gastric dilation volvulus?
Fluid or feed
Obstruction of the cardia
Obstruction of pylorus
How does gastric dilation volvulus occur?
Repeated episodes of stretching + relaxation of gastrohepatic ligament
Vascular compression occurs with gastric rotation
What does the pressure from the gastric rotation cause?
What is the gross appearance of gastric dilation?
Stomach filled with gas
Duodenum + Spleen displaced to right
What is the most common direction that abomasal displacement occurs?
What is the common presentation left-sided abdomasal displacement?
Non-fatal entity seen in dairy cattle at 6 weeks after parturition
What can abomasal displacement lead to?
Parial obstruction of abomasal outflow
What can cause right sided abomasal displacement?
Rotate on its mesenteric axis
Occurs post-parturient dairy + calves
How do you know an abomasal rupture occur antemortem?
Multifocal hemorrhaging along upper margin of the tear
What causes braxy?
What is braxy?
What animal does braxy present in?
What does braxy lead to in sheep?
Death due to exotoxemia
What is the causative agent in calf abomasitis?
What is the characteristic lesion in calf abomasitis?
Abomasal wall edema + bloat
What are the causative agents in sepcticemia of pigs?
What occurs in the GI tract of pigs with sepcticemia?
Bacteria lodge in gastric submucosal vessles
Leads to thrombosis + hemorrhage + Infarction + Ulceration
What animal does granulomatous gastritis?
What are the causetive for granulomatous gastritis?
What are the three types of eosinophilic gastritis?
Describe: Focal Eosinophilic Gastritis
Describe: Diffuse Eosinophilic Gastritis
Due to hypersensitivity reaction
Describe: Scirrhous Eosinophilic Gastritis
Characterized by fibrosis
What is hypertrophic gastritis characterized by?
What is hypertrophic gastritis a result of?
Chronic retention of gastric fluid
Reflux of intestinal bile
Cause of hypertrophic gastritis in Dogs
Cause of hypertrophic gastritis in Primates
Notchia nocti infestation
Cause of hypertrophic gastritis in Horses
What is chronic giant hypertrophic gastropathy of dogs?
What breeds are pre-disposed to chronic giant hypertrophic gastropathy?
What is the gross presentation of chronic giant hypertrophic gastropathy?
Cerebriform mass of redunant mucosa prsent in center of gastric mucosa
Chornic inflammation in mass = increased mucosal permeability
What is the most common cause of gastric ulcers in dogs + cats?
What is the condition necessary for gastric ulcers to occur?
Imbalance between acid secretion + mucosal protection
What can result in gastric imbalances leading to ulcers?
High gastric acidity
Disturbances of blood flow
Why do steroid + NSAID's cause gastric ulcers?
Depression of prostaglandin formation
Decreasing phospholipid secretion
What is Zollinger-Ellison syndrome?
Gastric ulcers develop secondary to islet cell tumors in pancreas or duodenum
How do pancreatic or duodenal tumors result in gastric uclers?
Increasing release of histamine in circulation
increases HCl secretion in stomach
What can cause gastric ulcers in cattle?
What causes gatric ulcers in foals?
What causes gastric ulcers in adult horses?
What causes gastric ulcers in pigs?
Finely ground feed
In pigs, where are gastric ulcers limited to?
Stratified squamous epithelium
What neoplasias occur in the stomach?
Mast cell tumors
What is lymphoma in the stomach associated with in bovids?
Where does leiomyomas arise from in the stomach?