LEC 2,3 - Repro II/III: Females Flashcards Preview

Pathology II > LEC 2,3 - Repro II/III: Females > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC 2,3 - Repro II/III: Females Deck (139):
1

Where do paraovarian and parauterine cysts normally come from?

Remnants of the regressed wolffian duct system

2

Why are developmental cyst non-pathological most of the time?

Not detrimental to the host or reproduction

3

What animal tends to get epithelial inclusion cysts?

Equines

4

Why can epithelial inclusion cysts be pathologic?

Pinching off epithelium near ovulation fossa = obstruction of ovulation

5

What animals tend to get subsurface epithelial structures?

Older dogs

6

Why are subsurface epithelial structures non-pathologic?

Do not interfere with ovulation because wider surface where ovulation can occur in dogs

7

What animals is commonly have cystic rete ovarii?

Cats + Dogs

8

Why is a cystic rete ovarii pathologic?

Can cause atrophy of the cortex due to compression of cortical tissue against ovarian capsule

9

When do luteal cysts develop?

Delayed or insufficent LH release such that ovulation does not occur yet theca is luteinized

10

Why is a luteal cyst pathologic?

Cause cystic ovarian degeneration

11

What animals commonly get luteal cysts?

Cows + Swine

12

What causes cystic corpora lutea?

Follicles that have ovulation but retained a small amount of fluid forming a central cyst which is surrounded by luteal tissue

13

Is a cystic corpora lutea pathologic? Why?

No

14

What is COD?

Cystic Ovarian Degeneration

15

What animal most commonly gets COD?

Cows

16

How is COD defined in a cow?

Follicular cyst measuring 2.5 cm or more
-- and --
Persisting for 10 days or more

17

What can COD become?

Luteal cysts if undergo lutetinization

18

When does COD occur most?

15 to 45 days after calving

19

What is a possible problem that occurs in cows that have COD?

Neuroendocrine dysfunction

20

What does neuroendocrine dysfunction cause in a cow with COD?

Complete failure of LH release from pituitary
Insufficient amounts of LH
Failure of hypothalamus to respond to positive feedback of increasing levels of estrogen during early estrus
Uterine infections

21

What happens in a COD cow that continues to produce excess estrogen?

Infertility
Anestrus
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia
Mucometra or hydrometra
Endometrial atrophy

22

What are the five kinds of ovarian neoplasia?

Sex cord stromal tissues
Epithelial tissues
Germ or stem cell tumors
Mesenchymal
metastatic

23

Cancer types: Sex cord stromal cancers

Granulosa cell
Theca cell
Luteoma

24

Cancer types: Epithelial Tumor Ovarian

Cystadenoma
Cystadenocarcinoma

25

Cancer types: Germ/Stem cell tumor

Dysgerminoma
Teratoma

26

Cancer types: Mesenchymal

Leiomyoma
Leiomyosarcoma
Fibroma
Fibrosarcoma

27

Cancer types: Metastatic tumor

Lymphoma

28

What is the most common ovarian tumor in a horse and cow?

Granulosa cell tumor

29

What does a granulosa cell tumor look like grossly?

Smooth outer surface
Center is solid/cystic
Often hemorrhaging present

30

How does a granulosa cell tumor form?

Solid mass of neoplasic granulosa cells form around ova
Develop graffian follicle
Efface ovary

31

What hormone is a granulosa cell tumor most commonly linked with?

Overproduction of estrogen

32

What does the overproduction of estrogen from a granulosa cell tumor cause?

Endometrial hyperplasia

33

What other hormones can a granulosa cell tumor produce?

Androgens
-- or --
Inhibin

34

What is the source of a ovarian adenocarcinoma?

Epithelial tissue anywhere in the ovary

35

What appearance does an ovarian adenocarcinoma have grossly?

Papillary
+/- Cysts

36

How do ovarian adenocarcinomas tend to metastisize?

Exfoliation + Implantation on abdominal wall surfaces
-- or --
Lymphatics to regional LN

37

What is the cell of origin for an ovarian teratoma?

Totipotential primordial germ cell

38

What does a dysgerminoma arise from?

Primitive germ cell in ovary that do not differentiate

39

What is the gross appearance of a dysgerminoma?

Soft, solid mass within the ovary

40

What is the histological appearance of a dysgerminoma?

Sheets of polygonal cells

41

What are the three forms of mesenchymal tumors seen in the ovaries?

Fibromas/sarcomas
Leiomyomas/sarcomas
Hemangiomas/sarcomas

42

What are the three forms of uterine inflammation seen?

Endometritis
Metritis
Pyometra

43

What is the most common cause of endometritis in a mare?

Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus

44

How soon should post-coital endometritis resolve before you think there is a problem?

48 to 72 hours

45

What is happening in endometritis during estrus?

Neutrophisl marginate n endometrial capillaries

46

What is phagocytosis of the neutrophils within the uterus dependent on?

Adequate numbers of neutrophils
Appropriate neutrophil function
Opsonization

47

What happens with contamination during coitus or parturition?

Fail to fertilize ova
-- or --
Fertilization occurs but embryonic death follows if bacteria is not cleared

48

What is the histopathlogical appearance of endometritis?

Neutrophils - early
Lymphocytes + Plasma cells - days

49

What is periglandular fibrosis?

Chronic change that leads to infertility

50

What is the histological appearance of periglandular fibrosis?

Circumferential fibrosis of glands
-- and--
Non-supprative inflammation

51

What can cause Bovine postpartum metritis?

Abnormal parturition
Uterine involution slowed
Patent lumen fills with lochia
Bacteria enter + multiply

52

What happens in the most severe forms of bovine postparum metritis?

Septicemic disperion of infection
-- and --
Uterine vein throbosis + embolism

53

What normally is the cause of bovine postpartum pyometra?

History of retained placenta or dystocia
Bacterial contamination leads to endometrial inflammation preventing the CL from regressing

54

What is pyometra?

Accumulation of purulent material in uterus

55

What bacteria are the common cause of pyometra?

E. Coli
Trueperella pyogenes
Gram-negative anaerobes

56

What is the etiologic agent in bovine postcoital pyometra?

Tritrichomanas foetus

57

What is the clinical presentation of bovine postcoital pyometra?

Embryonic deaths
Reabsorption
Infertility

58

What type of infection is tritrichomonas foetus?

Protozoal venereal infection

59

What is seen in infectect cows in regards to their embryos?

Early abortion occurs 1-16 wks after fetilization
Low birth weigth + delayed calving in those that survive

60

What is the treatment for cows with tritirchomas?

None - self-limiting

61

What can bulls be treated with that are infected with tritrichomonas?

Antitrichomonal salves

62

What is the sequence of events in cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra?

Repeat estrous w/o pregnancy
Followed by diestrus periods w/ CL present
Uterus under progesterone influence
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia
Secondary bacterial infection

63

What occurs when the uterus is under the influence of progesterone?

Immune suppression
-- and --
Loss of SM tone

64

What is the clinical presentation of canine pyometra?

Fever
Polyuria/dipsia
Leukocytosis w/ left shit + toxic change
Myeloid hyperplasia

65

What type of hyperplastic epithleum occurs with cystic ovaries?

Estrogenic

66

What is the appearance of estrogenic hyperplastic epithelium?

Low cubodial or attenuated

67

What aniamls is estrogenic hyperplastic epithelium most commonly seen?

Large animals
Bovine cystic follicular degeneration

68

What type of hyperplastic epithleum occurs with pyometra complex?

Progestational

69

What is the histological appearange of progestational hyperplastic epithelium?

Tall, hypertrophic/plastic w/ clear cytoplasm

70

What is progestation hyperplastic epithelium most commonly seen in?

Dogs

71

What occurs with hydraaminos + hydroallantosis?

Dysregulation of fluid leading to either accumulation in either amniotic or allantoic sacs
Leads to fetal detah

72

What animals is hydraminos/hydroallantosis seen most commonly?

Bovine

73

What animal does subinvolution of placental sites most commonly occur?

Carnivores

74

What causes subinvolution of placental sites?

trophoblastic cells from chorion can invade uterus
cause presistant bloody discharge postpartum

75

What is considered a retained placenta in cattle?

12 hours postpartum

76

What is condisdered a retained placenta in equine?

3 hours

77

What are the three consequences of fetal death?

Resorption
Mummification
Expulsion

78

What are the three types of explusion?

Maceration
Stillbirth
Abortion

79

What is mummification?

Autolysis without putrefaction
Fluids get reabsorbed
Fetus desiccates

80

What is maceration?

Fetal death in presence of uterine infection

81

What are the signs that maceration is what occurred?

Odor
Skin slippage
Reddened tissue
Liquefaction of tissue

82

What is considered a stillbirth?

Fetus delivered dead within period of expected viability

83

What is considered an abortion?

Expulsion of fetus prior to expected time of delivery

84

When an abortion occurs what is the best set of samples to send to the pathologist?

Entire fetus
Entire placenta
Serum from affected and unaffected animals

85

When do you get lower yield results from abortion case diagnostics?

Sporadic abortions

86

If you have a problem sending the preferred samples to the pathologist what are the minimum samples that they need?

1/4 inche section of each fetal organ + tissues with lesions
Fresh samples of lung, liver, kidney, abomasal fluid + placenta
Serum

87

What are the three categories of infections that cause abortions?

Maternal
Placental
Fetal

88

What are the two maternal infections that cause abortion?

Salmonella septicemia
-- and --
Equine viral arteritis

89

What are the common species of salmonella that are the cause of maternal infections leading to abortion?

Typhimurium + Dublin

90

What is the pathogensis of a Salmonella infection that leads to abortion?

Maternal septicemia
Fetal anoxia/septicemia
Endotoxin prostaglandin release +

91

What is the cause of salmonella related abortions?

Luteolysis

92

How is equine viral arteritis spread?

Sexually transmitted from stallion

93

What is the normal clinical signs seen with EVA infections?

Mild upper respiratory disease

94

What occurs with sever cases of EVA?

Generalized vascular necrosis

95

When do abortions occur with severe EVA infections?

1 to 14 days post exposure

96

What is the cause of EVA related abortions?

Vasculitis + Metritis leading to detachment of placenta

97

What organisms are the cause of placental infections leading to abortion?

Brucellosis
Streptococcus
Toxoplasmosis
Neospora
Coxiella burnetii
Trueperella pyogenes
Fungal infections

98

What is the pathogensis of brucellosis infections that lead to abortion?

Cow will eat infected placenta
Bacteremia
Infection of uterus + placenta

99

Where does brucellosis replicate in the body?

trophoblastic cells

100

What type of placentitis is seen with brucellosis?

intercotyledonary + cotyledonary

101

How does a fungal infection occur in bovine that leads to abortion?

Most likely ingestion + GI spread
Facillitated by BVD

102

What is the infection mechanism for a fungal infection leading to abortion in horse?

Transcervical contamination

103

What gross lesions are seen with fungal infections of the placenta?

Leathery thickening of both cotyledonary + intercontyledonary placenta
Fetal mycotic dermatis

104

When do fungal infections cause abortions in cattle and equine?

5th to 11th month gestation

105

What is the best way to visualize a fungal infection in a placenta?

Silver stain

106

What is the most important bacterial cause of abortion in a mare?

Streptococcal placentitis

107

How does strep get into a mare's placenta?

Ascending via open cervix

108

What is seen grossly with streptococcal placentitis?

Severe lesions
Placenta w/ trombosed blood vessels + hemorrhage + necrosis
septic fetus

109

What is the common cause of abortion in sheep?

Toxoplasmosis

110

What is the definitive host of toxoplasmosis?

Felines

111

What is seen grossly with toxoplasmosis infections of the placenta?

Cotyledonary necrosis

112

What is seen histologically with a toxoplasmosis infection of the placenta?

Toxoplasma cysts in trophoblasts

113

What animals does campylobacter cause abortion in most commonly?

Bovine + Ovine

114

What are the forms of campylobacter that cause abortion?

venerealis + fetus + jejuni

115

What does not occur with a fetus aborted due to campylobacter?

NOT autolyzed

116

What is a classic lesion of an aborted fetus due to campylobacter?

Fetal targetoid hepatic necrosis l

117

What is the definitive host of neospora?

Canine

118

What does neospora cause in cattle?

Abortion storms

119

What lesions are found on a fetus aborted due to neospora?

Myocardial necrosis
-- and --
glial nodules in the brain

120

What does coxiella burnetii cause? (animal)

Abortion in sheep

121

What does coxiella do in sheep that causes abortion?

Placentitis
Diffusely thickened
Leathery with necrosis + exudate
Trophoblasts infected

122

What are the most common causes of abortion in sheep?

C. Fetus Fetus
C. Jejuni
Chlamydia psittaci
Coxiella burnetii

123

Where is truperella pyogenes normally found?

mucosal membranes of livestock

124

What is truperella pyogenes the most common cause of?

Sporadic bovine abortion

125

What fetal infections cause abortion?

Herpes
BVD
Leptosprosis
Listeriosis

126

What is seen in listeriosis abortions?

Autolyzed fetus
White foci of necrosis in heart + skeletal muscle

127

What does listeriosis cause abortion in?

Cattle + Sheep + Goat

128

How are the three ways listeriosis presents?

Encephalitic + Septicemic + Abortions

129

What does lepto cause abortions in?

Cattle

130

What are non-infectious causes of abortions?

Equine twins
Umbilical cord twist
Toxins
Heriditary conditions

131

What causes uterine torsion?

Uterus weighed down w/ fetus

132

Where does the uterus twise in intercornual ligment animals?

at base

133

Where does the uterus twist in animals without a intercornual ligamnet?

each horn twists

134

What animal most commonly has uterine prolapses?

Cattle due to breeding mismanagement

135

When does uterine prolapse occur most of the time?

15 hours postpartum

136

What are the predisposing conditions to uterine prolapse?

Milk fever
Atonic uterus
Tenesmus

137

What associated lesions are seen with uterine prolapse?

uterine/vaginal tare
endometritis/metritis

138

When does vaginal prolapse occur in canines?

Proestrus + estrus
Estrogen related

139

When does vaginal prolapse occur in cattle?

Late gestation