Flashcards in LEC 2,3 - Repro II/III: Females Deck (139):
Where do paraovarian and parauterine cysts normally come from?
Remnants of the regressed wolffian duct system
Why are developmental cyst non-pathological most of the time?
Not detrimental to the host or reproduction
What animal tends to get epithelial inclusion cysts?
Why can epithelial inclusion cysts be pathologic?
Pinching off epithelium near ovulation fossa = obstruction of ovulation
What animals tend to get subsurface epithelial structures?
Why are subsurface epithelial structures non-pathologic?
Do not interfere with ovulation because wider surface where ovulation can occur in dogs
What animals is commonly have cystic rete ovarii?
Cats + Dogs
Why is a cystic rete ovarii pathologic?
Can cause atrophy of the cortex due to compression of cortical tissue against ovarian capsule
When do luteal cysts develop?
Delayed or insufficent LH release such that ovulation does not occur yet theca is luteinized
Why is a luteal cyst pathologic?
Cause cystic ovarian degeneration
What animals commonly get luteal cysts?
Cows + Swine
What causes cystic corpora lutea?
Follicles that have ovulation but retained a small amount of fluid forming a central cyst which is surrounded by luteal tissue
Is a cystic corpora lutea pathologic? Why?
What is COD?
Cystic Ovarian Degeneration
What animal most commonly gets COD?
How is COD defined in a cow?
Follicular cyst measuring 2.5 cm or more
-- and --
Persisting for 10 days or more
What can COD become?
Luteal cysts if undergo lutetinization
When does COD occur most?
15 to 45 days after calving
What is a possible problem that occurs in cows that have COD?
What does neuroendocrine dysfunction cause in a cow with COD?
Complete failure of LH release from pituitary
Insufficient amounts of LH
Failure of hypothalamus to respond to positive feedback of increasing levels of estrogen during early estrus
What happens in a COD cow that continues to produce excess estrogen?
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia
Mucometra or hydrometra
What are the five kinds of ovarian neoplasia?
Sex cord stromal tissues
Germ or stem cell tumors
Cancer types: Sex cord stromal cancers
Cancer types: Epithelial Tumor Ovarian
Cancer types: Germ/Stem cell tumor
Cancer types: Mesenchymal
Cancer types: Metastatic tumor
What is the most common ovarian tumor in a horse and cow?
Granulosa cell tumor
What does a granulosa cell tumor look like grossly?
Smooth outer surface
Center is solid/cystic
Often hemorrhaging present
How does a granulosa cell tumor form?
Solid mass of neoplasic granulosa cells form around ova
Develop graffian follicle
What hormone is a granulosa cell tumor most commonly linked with?
Overproduction of estrogen
What does the overproduction of estrogen from a granulosa cell tumor cause?
What other hormones can a granulosa cell tumor produce?
-- or --
What is the source of a ovarian adenocarcinoma?
Epithelial tissue anywhere in the ovary
What appearance does an ovarian adenocarcinoma have grossly?
How do ovarian adenocarcinomas tend to metastisize?
Exfoliation + Implantation on abdominal wall surfaces
-- or --
Lymphatics to regional LN
What is the cell of origin for an ovarian teratoma?
Totipotential primordial germ cell
What does a dysgerminoma arise from?
Primitive germ cell in ovary that do not differentiate
What is the gross appearance of a dysgerminoma?
Soft, solid mass within the ovary
What is the histological appearance of a dysgerminoma?
Sheets of polygonal cells
What are the three forms of mesenchymal tumors seen in the ovaries?
What are the three forms of uterine inflammation seen?
What is the most common cause of endometritis in a mare?
How soon should post-coital endometritis resolve before you think there is a problem?
48 to 72 hours
What is happening in endometritis during estrus?
Neutrophisl marginate n endometrial capillaries
What is phagocytosis of the neutrophils within the uterus dependent on?
Adequate numbers of neutrophils
Appropriate neutrophil function
What happens with contamination during coitus or parturition?
Fail to fertilize ova
-- or --
Fertilization occurs but embryonic death follows if bacteria is not cleared
What is the histopathlogical appearance of endometritis?
Neutrophils - early
Lymphocytes + Plasma cells - days
What is periglandular fibrosis?
Chronic change that leads to infertility
What is the histological appearance of periglandular fibrosis?
Circumferential fibrosis of glands
What can cause Bovine postpartum metritis?
Uterine involution slowed
Patent lumen fills with lochia
Bacteria enter + multiply
What happens in the most severe forms of bovine postparum metritis?
Septicemic disperion of infection
-- and --
Uterine vein throbosis + embolism
What normally is the cause of bovine postpartum pyometra?
History of retained placenta or dystocia
Bacterial contamination leads to endometrial inflammation preventing the CL from regressing
What is pyometra?
Accumulation of purulent material in uterus
What bacteria are the common cause of pyometra?
What is the etiologic agent in bovine postcoital pyometra?
What is the clinical presentation of bovine postcoital pyometra?
What type of infection is tritrichomonas foetus?
Protozoal venereal infection
What is seen in infectect cows in regards to their embryos?
Early abortion occurs 1-16 wks after fetilization
Low birth weigth + delayed calving in those that survive
What is the treatment for cows with tritirchomas?
None - self-limiting
What can bulls be treated with that are infected with tritrichomonas?
What is the sequence of events in cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra?
Repeat estrous w/o pregnancy
Followed by diestrus periods w/ CL present
Uterus under progesterone influence
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia
Secondary bacterial infection
What occurs when the uterus is under the influence of progesterone?
-- and --
Loss of SM tone
What is the clinical presentation of canine pyometra?
Leukocytosis w/ left shit + toxic change
What type of hyperplastic epithleum occurs with cystic ovaries?
What is the appearance of estrogenic hyperplastic epithelium?
Low cubodial or attenuated
What aniamls is estrogenic hyperplastic epithelium most commonly seen?
Bovine cystic follicular degeneration
What type of hyperplastic epithleum occurs with pyometra complex?
What is the histological appearange of progestational hyperplastic epithelium?
Tall, hypertrophic/plastic w/ clear cytoplasm
What is progestation hyperplastic epithelium most commonly seen in?
What occurs with hydraaminos + hydroallantosis?
Dysregulation of fluid leading to either accumulation in either amniotic or allantoic sacs
Leads to fetal detah
What animals is hydraminos/hydroallantosis seen most commonly?
What animal does subinvolution of placental sites most commonly occur?
What causes subinvolution of placental sites?
trophoblastic cells from chorion can invade uterus
cause presistant bloody discharge postpartum
What is considered a retained placenta in cattle?
12 hours postpartum
What is condisdered a retained placenta in equine?
What are the three consequences of fetal death?
What are the three types of explusion?
What is mummification?
Autolysis without putrefaction
Fluids get reabsorbed
What is maceration?
Fetal death in presence of uterine infection
What are the signs that maceration is what occurred?
Liquefaction of tissue
What is considered a stillbirth?
Fetus delivered dead within period of expected viability
What is considered an abortion?
Expulsion of fetus prior to expected time of delivery
When an abortion occurs what is the best set of samples to send to the pathologist?
Serum from affected and unaffected animals
When do you get lower yield results from abortion case diagnostics?
If you have a problem sending the preferred samples to the pathologist what are the minimum samples that they need?
1/4 inche section of each fetal organ + tissues with lesions
Fresh samples of lung, liver, kidney, abomasal fluid + placenta
What are the three categories of infections that cause abortions?
What are the two maternal infections that cause abortion?
-- and --
Equine viral arteritis
What are the common species of salmonella that are the cause of maternal infections leading to abortion?
Typhimurium + Dublin
What is the pathogensis of a Salmonella infection that leads to abortion?
Endotoxin prostaglandin release +
What is the cause of salmonella related abortions?
How is equine viral arteritis spread?
Sexually transmitted from stallion
What is the normal clinical signs seen with EVA infections?
Mild upper respiratory disease
What occurs with sever cases of EVA?
Generalized vascular necrosis
When do abortions occur with severe EVA infections?
1 to 14 days post exposure
What is the cause of EVA related abortions?
Vasculitis + Metritis leading to detachment of placenta
What organisms are the cause of placental infections leading to abortion?
What is the pathogensis of brucellosis infections that lead to abortion?
Cow will eat infected placenta
Infection of uterus + placenta
Where does brucellosis replicate in the body?
What type of placentitis is seen with brucellosis?
intercotyledonary + cotyledonary
How does a fungal infection occur in bovine that leads to abortion?
Most likely ingestion + GI spread
Facillitated by BVD
What is the infection mechanism for a fungal infection leading to abortion in horse?
What gross lesions are seen with fungal infections of the placenta?
Leathery thickening of both cotyledonary + intercontyledonary placenta
Fetal mycotic dermatis
When do fungal infections cause abortions in cattle and equine?
5th to 11th month gestation
What is the best way to visualize a fungal infection in a placenta?
What is the most important bacterial cause of abortion in a mare?
How does strep get into a mare's placenta?
Ascending via open cervix
What is seen grossly with streptococcal placentitis?
Placenta w/ trombosed blood vessels + hemorrhage + necrosis
What is the common cause of abortion in sheep?
What is the definitive host of toxoplasmosis?
What is seen grossly with toxoplasmosis infections of the placenta?
What is seen histologically with a toxoplasmosis infection of the placenta?
Toxoplasma cysts in trophoblasts
What animals does campylobacter cause abortion in most commonly?
Bovine + Ovine
What are the forms of campylobacter that cause abortion?
venerealis + fetus + jejuni
What does not occur with a fetus aborted due to campylobacter?
What is a classic lesion of an aborted fetus due to campylobacter?
Fetal targetoid hepatic necrosis l
What is the definitive host of neospora?
What does neospora cause in cattle?
What lesions are found on a fetus aborted due to neospora?
-- and --
glial nodules in the brain
What does coxiella burnetii cause? (animal)
Abortion in sheep
What does coxiella do in sheep that causes abortion?
Leathery with necrosis + exudate
What are the most common causes of abortion in sheep?
C. Fetus Fetus
Where is truperella pyogenes normally found?
mucosal membranes of livestock
What is truperella pyogenes the most common cause of?
Sporadic bovine abortion
What fetal infections cause abortion?
What is seen in listeriosis abortions?
White foci of necrosis in heart + skeletal muscle
What does listeriosis cause abortion in?
Cattle + Sheep + Goat
How are the three ways listeriosis presents?
Encephalitic + Septicemic + Abortions
What does lepto cause abortions in?
What are non-infectious causes of abortions?
Umbilical cord twist
What causes uterine torsion?
Uterus weighed down w/ fetus
Where does the uterus twise in intercornual ligment animals?
Where does the uterus twist in animals without a intercornual ligamnet?
each horn twists
What animal most commonly has uterine prolapses?
Cattle due to breeding mismanagement
When does uterine prolapse occur most of the time?
15 hours postpartum
What are the predisposing conditions to uterine prolapse?
What associated lesions are seen with uterine prolapse?
When does vaginal prolapse occur in canines?
Proestrus + estrus