LEC 20: Introduction to Radiographic Anatomy Thoracic Imagining Flashcards Preview

STRUCTURES - WEEK 2 > LEC 20: Introduction to Radiographic Anatomy Thoracic Imagining > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC 20: Introduction to Radiographic Anatomy Thoracic Imagining Deck (30):
1

Plain radiograph

x-rays pass through tissues, based on density, and are detected on other side (image)

  • (radiation!)
  • 2-D project of 3-D object
  • orthogonal projects can help localize objects and identify pathology

 

2

Fluoroscopy

moving/continuous x-rays often with contrast agent (radiation!)

3

CT (computed tomography)

similar to radiographs but the x-rays pass through the body in "all" directions (360 degrees) from a rotating source and are detected, used to generate slices through the tissues

  • radiation!
  • imagine walking into patient's room and viewing slices from the foot of bed to the head

 

4

When are x-ray, fluoroscopy, and CT ill-advisded

pregnancy

  • developing structures in first trimester are at increased risk of mutogenesis
  • at end of pregnancy, fetuses that get irradiated have increased risk of childhood cancer (leukemia)

 

5

CT coronary angiography (CTA)

a computerized tomography (CT) coronary angiogram is an imaging test that looks at the arteries that supply your heart with blood

  • radiation!
  • less invasive than traditional coronary angiogram

 

6

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

uses body's intrinsic magnetic properties to create images; spinning water hydrogen proton is a mini magnet in a larger magnet

  • energy (RF pulse) sent in and signal comes out to produce image
  • no radiation!
  • no metal, not good for people with claustrophobia

7

Ultrasound

uses high frequency sound waves; different tissues reflect back more or less sound waves, detected by a hand held transducer to generate images

  • portable, "real time" information
  • no radiation!

8

Density principle

  • bone/metal = white
  • soft tissue = light gray
  • fat = darker gray
  • air = black

9

How is the anatomy of the thoracic cavity divided

1. Pleural cavities

2. Mediastinum

 

 

10

Contents of the pleural cavities

  • pleura = made up of flat layer of mesothelial cells and supporting tissues
  • lungs = respiratory organs

11

Pleura

2 layers:

1. parietal layer = lines inner surface of chest cavity

2. visceral layer = covers surfaces of the lungs

Parietal and visceral layers merge at the Hila of the lungs where vessels and airways pass in/out

12

Hila of the lungs

Where parietal and visceral layers of pleura merge; Hila is where vessels and airways pass in/out

13

Costodiaphragmatic recesses

area of pleural space where there is NO visceral pleura (or lung) between 2 parietal layers

  • fluid accumulates here first
  • many recesses in pleura
  • costodiaphragmatic recess is the largest
  • potential space

 

14

What is the motion of diaphragm when breathing in

Diaphragm moves down; creates negative interthoracic pressure so air will be sucked in

15

Pleural effusion

excess fluid builds up around the lung in pleural space (between visceral and parietal layers)

  • hydrothorax (serous fluid)
  • hemothorax (blood)
  • chylothorax (chyle)
  • pneumothorax (air)
  • pyothorax (pus)

16

mesothelioma

pleural plaques due to asbestos exposure

17

lungs

  • organs of respiration (gas exchange)
  • fill the pleural cavities surounded by visceral (lung facing) and parietal (body wall facing) pleura
  • straddle mediastinum
  • divided into lobes
    • lobes divided into bronchopulmonary segments
    • areas of the lung supplied by segmental bronchus and pulmonary artery branches

18

left lung

  • one fissure (oblique/major): divides lung into 2 lobes (upper and lower)
  • left mainstream bronchus enters lung and then branches into upper and lower lobe branches

 

19

right lung

  • two fissures (oblique and horizontal) divide it into 3 lobes (upper/middle/lower)
  • right mainstem bronchus branches outside the lung into upper lobe branch and then branches inside lung

20

Lungs have dual blood supply

  • pulmonary arteries
    • R atrium-->R ventricle-->main pulmonary artery-->R/L pulmonary arteries (deoxygenated blood)
  • bronchial arteries
    • blood comes from aorta or its branches (oxygenated blood)

 

21

Divisions of Mediastinum

  • can be divided into inferior mediastinum and superior mediastinum
  • inferior mediastinum
    • anterior
    • posterior
    • middle
      • origins of great vessels
      • heart
      • pericardium

22

Contents of Mediastinum

  • thymus (immune system, site of T-cell maturation)
  • heart in pericardial sac
  • major vessels
  • trachea
  • esophagus
  • nerves and lymphatics

23

Position of heart in chest

  • NOT straight up and down in chest
  • apex points down, forward, to left
  • base sits over diaphragm with right more forward than left
  • major vessels enter/exit posteriorly at base

24

Right pump of the heart

carries deoxygenated blood from body to lungs

SVC/IVC-->R atrium-->R ventricle-->pulmonary arteries

-->lungs

25

Left pump of the heart

carries oxygenated blood from lungs

lungs-->pulmonary veins-->L atrium-->L ventricle-->aorta

-->body

26

dextrocardia

congenital birth defect where heart is pointed toward right side of chest (instead of normally pointing to the left)

27

What heart margins are visible in chest x-ray (right side)

  • SVC
  • R atrium
  • IVC
  • NOT R ventricle; heart is rotated

28

What heart margins are visible in chest x-ray (left side)

  • Aortic arch
  • pulmonary trunk
  • L atrium
  • L ventricle

 

29

Superior mediastinum

  • R/L brachiocephalic veins
  • thoracic aorta and major branches
  • SVC
  • Trachea
  • Esophagus
  • Thymus
  • Phrenic and vagus nerves
  • Left recurrent laryngeal nerve (passes under arch)

30

SVC syndrome

group of symptoms caused by obstruction of the superior vena cava (a short, wide vessel carrying circulating blood into the heart)

  • 90% of SVC syndrome caused by cancer